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Telecommunications Glossary by Voicenet.eu

Telecommunications Glossary by Voicenet.eu

Access Channels: Dedicated channels giving nondiscriminatory access to a local

cable system by the public, government agencies or educational institutions.

ACCUNET Switched Digital Services: High-speed dial-up digital data services offered

by AT&T for full duplex digital transmission at speeds of 56, 64, 384 and 1536 kbps.

Uses include data, voice and video services.

Acoustic Coupler: A device that allows a conventional telephone handset to feed its

signal into a modem, as opposed to direct couplers, which feed the

modulated/demodulated signal directly into the phone line.

Acoustic Echo Canceller: All speakerphones have some form of adaptive echo

canceller that produces a synthetic replica of the potential echo to subtract from the

transmit audio. Most units have a center clipping echo suppresser to remove the

residual echo from the transmit signal. The goal of the acoustic echo canceller is to

reduce the amount of direct and reverberant loudspeaker coupling to the microphone to

prevent echo. To achieve this, the algorithms used in today’s devices require an audio

system that is feedback stable.

Acoustic Echo Return Loss – AERL: The minimum loss experienced by a sound in

traveling from the loudspeaker to the microphone in a conference room. It is expressed

in dB or decibels. A 0 dB loss corresponds to a perfectly reflective room or to very close

coupling between loudspeaker and microphone. In practice, AERL figures can range

from 0 to -30 dB, with a poor room having the former figure.

Acoustic Echo Return Loss Enhancement – AERLE: The maximum echo

cancellation provided by the acoustic canceller. Typical figures will vary from 6 to 18 dB.

The larger the number the better. It is important to note whether the figure is quoted with

the center clipper enabled or disabled. If quoted with center clipper disabled, it is a true

measure of the cancellation provided by the echo canceller rather than the attenuation

provided by the center clipper.

Acoustic Modem: A modulator-demodulator unit that converts data signals to

telephone tones and back again.

Active Satellite: A satellite that transmits a signal, in contrast to a passive satellite that

only reflects a signal. The signal received by the active satellite is usually amplified and

translated to a different frequency before it is retransmitted.

Ad Hoc: Teleconferencing technology and sites assembled for an event; equipment

may be rented or permanently installed; sites are not always part of the network.

Addressable: The ability to signal from the headend or hub site in such a way that only

the desired subscriber’s receiving equipment is affected. This makes it possible to send

a signal to a subscriber and effect changes in the subscriber’s level of service such as

the ability to receive a program.

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ADPCM – Adaptive differential pulse code modulation: A method of compressing

audio data by recording the differences between successive digital samples rather than

full value of the samples. There are many different types of ADPCM standards; this

refers to the standard as defined in the CD-ROM XA and CD-I standards.

ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop: ADSL uses a regular phone line

(twisted pair) without a dial tone (a dry pair) to allow transfer speeds of up to 7Mb

downstream with slower speeds going back up (faster than a T1). The Telcos are using

ADSL to maintain market share rather than allowing the cable industry to deploy cable

modems. Pacific Bells says that 45 percent of its customers will be able to have access

to ADSL by the end of 1997.

Affiliate Network: Group with their own satellite receive equipment; routinely receive

same programming.

Agent: See knowbot.

Algorithm: 1. Rule of thumb for doing something with a semblance of intelligence. For

example, a descrambling algorithm will yield a clear, unscrambled message from an

apparently meaningless one. 2. The procedure used for performing a task.

America Online – AOL: Commercial information service with a graphical interface.

Amplifier: A device used to increase the strength of video and audio electronic signals.

Amplitude: The size or magnitude of a voltage or current waveform; the strength of a


Analog: Information represented by a continuous electromagnetic wave encoded so

that its power varies continuously with the power of a signal received from a sound or

light source.

Analog-to-Digital – A/D Conversion: The conversion of an analog signal into a digital

equivalent. An A/D converter samples or measures an input voltage and outputs a

digitally encoded number corresponding to that voltage.

Analog Transmission: Transmission of a continuously variable signal as opposed to a

discrete signal. Physical quantities such as temperature are described as analog while

data characters are coded in discrete pulses and are referred to as digital.

Animate: To effect motion of any sort; e.g. to animate a person’s presentation.

Animation: A video, film, and computer production technique utilizing cartoon-type

artwork to create the illusion of movement.

ANSI – American National Standards Institute: ANSI is one of these “terminal

emulation” methods. Although most popular on PC-based bulletin-board systems, it can

also be found on some Internet sites. To use it properly, you will first have to turn it on,

or enable it, in your communications software.

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Answerback: The response of a terminal to remote control signals. Antenna (dish) The

device that sends and/or receives signals (electromagnetic) from the satellite.:

Antenna Power: The product of the square of the broadcast antenna current and the

antenna resistance where the current is measured.

Aperture: A cross section of the antenna exposed to the satellite signal.

Application: The use of a technology to achieve a specific objective.

Application Software: In computers, programs used to interact with and accomplish

work for the user. Application software is usually written in a higher computer language

such as Basic, COBOL, FORTRAN or Pascal, and may be written by the user or

supplied by the manufacturer or a software company.

Applications Program: A computer program dedicated to a specific purpose or task.

Applications programs which produce discernible results and can sometimes be

machine-independent, are distinct from systems programs, which are designed to drive

particular electronic devices and are always machine-dependent.

Archie: A system which allows searching of indexes of files available on public servers

on the Internet.

Archival: A medium that is readable and/or writable for an extended period.

Armored Cable: Coaxial cable that can be direct buried without protective conduit, or

used in underwater applications.

ARPANet: A predecessor of the Internet. Started in 1969 with funds from the Defense

Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange; pronounced “Askee.” An

eight-level code for data transfer adopted by the American Standards Association to

achieve compatibility between data services.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of picture width to height (4 to 3 for North American NTSC

broadcast video).

Asynchronous Communication: Takes place in different time frames and accessed at

the user’s convenience. Synchronous communication takes place in the same time

frame such as a live teleconference.

Asynchronous Time-Division Multiplexing: An asynchronous signal transmission

mode that makes use of time-division multiplexing.

Asynchronous Transmission: A technique in which the time interval between

characters may be of unequal length. Transmission is controlled by start and stop

elements at the end of each character. Used for low-speed terminal links.

Telecommunications Glossary/5

ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode: ATM switching protocol can handle all types of

traffic – voice, data, image, and video.

Attenuation: The difference between transmitted and received power due to loss

through equipment, lines, or other transmission devices; usually expressed in decibels.

The loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception


Attenuator: A device for reducing the amplitude of a signal.

ATSC: Advanced Television Systems Committee.

ATV – Advanced Television: An agglomeration of techniques, based largely on digital

signal processing and transmission, that permits far more program material to be

carried through channels than existing analog systems can manage. In this sense,

HDTV (high definition television) is a subset of ATV. ATV does not automatically signify

improved picture or sound performance. Those are things that can be accomplished

with ATV in systems designed for such purposes, but it can also carry ten somewhat

lower- quality signals where only one could exist previously, or permit ghost cancellation

for ordinary NTSC signals. In each case, the new features derive from the use of digital

techniques of one form or another.

Audio Bridge: An audio bridge connects the telephones at remote sites, equalizes the

noise distortion and background noise for a live audio teleconference.

Audio Frequency: A frequency lying within the audible spectrum (the band of

frequencies extending from about 20 Hz to 20 kHz).

Audio Presentation: Often overlooked, but just as important as the video (perhaps

more so) is the sound portion of the program. Without the audio, nothing is understood

while a video failure could be tolerated if the sound portion is not affected. Use a good

audio system to augment the video display. Do not use the built-in speaker of the TV

monitor or room PA system. Rather, employ a high quality stand-alone system, with the

speakers positioned adjacent to the TV screen. This affords the best audio

experience. The audio quality coming off the satellite signal is true high fidelity, and its

reproduction further enhances program presentation.

Audio Teleconferencing: Two-way electronic voice communication between two or

more groups, or three or more individuals, who are in separate locations.

Audiographic: Teleconference system which uses narrow band telecommunications

channels (telephone lines or subcarriers); transmits audio and graphics. Graphics can

be transmitted by facsimile transceivers (transmitter-receiver), computers (text or

graphic display), or electronic drawing systems (such as electronic blackboard) which

allow a participant to draw or write on an electronic screen which is transmitted to a

remote site where participants can see it.

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Audio Response: A form of output that uses verbal replies to inquiries. The computer

is programmed to seek answers to inquiries made on a time-shared on-line system and

then to utilize a special audio response unit which elicits the appropriate prerecorded

response to the inquiry.

Audio Response Unit: Device that provides a spoken response to digital inquiries from

a telephone or other device. The response is composed from a prerecorded vocabulary

of words and can be transmitted over telecommunication lines to the location from

which the inquiry originated.

Audio-Subcarrier: Frequency which transmits audio for an accompanying video signal

or independent audio (such as a radio program). Audio is sent along with the video

signal, but on a different frequency.

Aural Cable: Services providing FM-only original programming to cable systems on a

lease basis.

Authoring System: Computer software that allows one to develop the framework for an

interactive multimedia presentation. Authoring software enables the use of multiple data

types as well as the controls needed to play-back information on the computer from

devices such as CD-ROMs, computer hard disks and videodiscs.

Automatic Number Identification – ANI: The automatic identification of a calling

station, usually for automatic message accounting. Also used in pay-per-view

automated telephone order entry to identify a customer for billing and program

authorization purposes.

Azimuth: Angle between an antenna beam and the meridian plane, measured along a

horizontal plane. How far east or west in the southerly sky the satellite is located in

relation to the local meridian, or north-south plane. It is measured in degrees, clockwise

from true north.

Telecommunications Glossary/7


B-Mac: A method of transmitting and scrambling television signals where MAC

(multiplexed analog component) signals are time-multiplexed with a digital burst

containing digitized sound, video synchronizing, authorization, and information.

Backbone: A high-speed network that connects several powerful computers. In the

U.S., the backbone of the Internet is often the NSFNet, a government funded link

between a handful of supercomputer sites across the country.

Backbone Microwave System: A series of directional microwave paths carrying

common information to be relayed between remote points. The backbone microwave

system is engineered to allow the insertion of signals, the dropping off of signals and the

switching of signals along its length at designated relay points. In order to maintain the

signals in the highest possible quality, the equipment used in the backbone microwave

system is normally of a higher technical performance level than other microwave

electronics in the network. Antennas are always directional.

Backhaul: A term used for the transmission of a signal (normally video) from the ends

of transmission systems such as microwave to a central point. For a satellite

videoconference, a backhaul refers to a signal brought in from a secondary site to the

origination site, mixed with the primary signal, and sent out over the program out


Bandwidth: Determines the rate at which information can be transmitted across that a

medium. The rates are measured in bits (bps), kilobits (kbps), megabits (Mbps), or

gigabits per second (Gbps). Typical transmission services are 64 kbps, 1.544 mbps

(T1), and 45 Mbps (T3). The space between the top and bottom limit of airwave

frequencies that are transmitted over a communications channel. The maximum

frequency (range), measured in Hertz, between the two limiting frequencies of a

transmission channel; the range of frequencies that can be carried by a transmission

medium without undue distortion. Narrowband uses lower frequency signals such as

telephone frequencies of about 3,000 Hertz and radio subcarrier signals of about 15,000

Hertz. Broadband uses a wide range of frequencies (broadcast and cable TV,

microwave and satellite; carries a great deal of information in a short time; more

expensive to use. C band is in the 4 to 6 giga-Hertz (gHz) Ku Band is 12 and 14 gHz

.14.0 and 14.5 gHz are used to uplink; 11.7 and 12.2 gHz are used to downlink. A

receiver with dual band capability can receive C and Ku band signals.

Base Band: The unmodulated signal that is delivered from a satellite receiver.

Base Band Distribution Systems: Usually used when the viewing areas are close

together, and when TV monitors are used for viewing. The base band audio/video

output from the satellite receivers is fed directly into the monitor. This form of wiring

uses several twisted pair wires which can be very expensive when wiring more than 50

feet because of the need for many amplifiers and splitters. The picture quality is much

sharper using a base band system, than with any other system.

Telecommunications Glossary/8

Basic Rate Interface – BRI: The basic subscriber loop for one or two users, which

delivers two 64 kpbs B channels and one 16 kbps D channel over a standard twisted

pair loop. Each circuit-switched B channel can transmit voice or data simultaneously.

The D channel transmits call control messages and user packet data.

Batched Communication: The sending of a large body of data from one station to

another station network, without intervening responses from the receiving unit.

Baud: A unit of digital transmission signaling speed derived from the duration of the

shortest code element. Speed in bauds is the number of code elements per second.

300 Baud is low, 2400 Baud and 9600 Baud are much faster and common for

transmitting data by computer.

BBS – Bulletin Board System/Service: The BBS is an area within a network where

users can “post” information for public display, in much the same way one posts

information on a regular bulletin board. Most networks dedicate a bulletin board to

special interest areas, such as education or computer care.

Beyond the Horizon Region: That physical region beyond the optical horizon with

which line-of- sight radio communications is not normally possible, but can occur if

atmospheric conditions are such to cause beam bending or forward scattering of the

radio signal.

Bicycle Tapes: The process whereby video tape material is distributed by sending or

“bicycling” the tape after presentation to the next site for its scheduled presentation.

Bidirectional Flow: A pathway allocating two-way data or communication exchange;

flow in either direction represented on the same flow line in a flowchart.

Binary: Numbering system with two possible states, on or off as designated by 0 and 1.

BISDN – Broadband ISDN: Is expected to offer dedicated circuits, switched circuits and

packet services at rates of 155 Mbps and above.BISDN is currently in the conceptual

stage, and the term refers to a family of services being defined by the standards

organizations. The goal of BISDN is to take advantage of the immense amount of raw

bandwidth being made available due to the proliferation of fiber cable plant, and to

enable customers to send data, voice, and video at high speeds and in an integrated

manner. BISDN is expected to be fully defined in 1993-95, and deployment will take

place in the latter half of the decade. SONET-based fiber will serve as the delivery

vehicle for BISDN services. BISDN will employ the concept of cell relay (Asynchronous

Transfer Mode – ATM), which uses a transmission scheme based on small, fixed-sized

(53-byte) cells. These cells carry address and raw information, and the carrier networks

will use address information to route the cells to the appropriate destination. As

discussed above, frame relay is an interface; in contrast, cell relay is broader in scope

and defines the size of the packets and the process for carrying packets across a

network. BISDN is expected to encompass different types of services, including

datagram service, switched circuits and permanent circuits, and to run at speeds

ranging from 155 to 622 mbps. Some services, like SMDS and frame relay, will be in

Telecommunications Glossary/9

operation before BISDN is introduced, and the BISDN specs are expected to

incorporate these preexisting services.

Binary Files: Those containing information that is not represented in the file by ASCII

characters. These may be graphics, formatted files, or even executable programs. In

order to send these files, special up- and downloading protocols must be used. Base

Two, a number system comprised of zeros and ones, which represent off and on,

absence or presence of a pulse. Used to store data.

Bit: A contraction of the words “binary digit,” the smallest unit of information. A code

element of digital transmission. One bit per second equals one baud “binary digit” single

unit of information 0 or 1. See kbps or mbps.

Bit Density: A measure of the number of bits received per unit of length or area.

Bit Error Rate: Fraction of a sequence of message bits that are in error. A bit error rate

of 10-6 means that there is an average of one error per million bits.

Bit Rate: Speed at which bit positions are transmitted, normally expressed in bits per

second (see Baud.)

Bit Stream: A continuous string of bit positions occurring serially in time.

BITNET: Another, academically oriented, international computer network, which uses a

different set of computer instructions to move data. It is easily accessible to Internet

users through e-mail, and provides a large number of conferences and databases. Its

name comes from “Because It’s Time.” BITNET is linked to Net North, the Canadian

equivalent, and EARN, the European Academic and Research Network, as well as


Blanking (picture): The portion of the composite video signal whose instantaneous

amplitude makes the vertical and horizontal retrace invisible.

Blanking Level: The level of the front and back porches of the composite video signal.

Blanking Pulse: 1. A signal used to cut off the electron beam and thus remove the spot

of light on the face of a television picture tube or image tube. 2. A signal used to

suppress the picture signal at a given time for a required period.

Blanking Signal: A specified series of blanking pulses.

Block: A group of bits, or characters, transmitted as a unit. An encoding procedure is

generally applied to the group of bits or characters for error control purposes.

Block Downconverter – BDC: Located at the antenna. The multi-conversion process of

converting the entire band to an intermediate frequency (4 GHz to 1 GHz) for

transmission to multiple receivers, where the next conversion takes place. The BDC

receives the signals from the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and converts them from the

extremely high 4 GHz range to a much lower range, usually around 1 GHz. This range

Telecommunications Glossary/10

is less critical to signal loss, and permits the use of inexpensive long-run cable to

interconnect with the receiver. Perhaps the biggest advantage of the BDC is the manner

in which it handles the “block” of signals. It can be thought of as a passive device,

converting and passing on to the receiver all of the channels on the satellite (of the

selected polarity). This allows for the installation of multiple receivers through signal

splitters, and simultaneous program viewing or taping. Older installations used

downconverters that operated on only one channel, tuned by the receiver. These

downconverters converted the LNA signals to 70 MHz, which provided considerable

flexibility in quality and length of the connecting cables. The BDC method is used by Ku-

Band systems and is also compatible with C-Band receivers.

Block-Error Rate: The ratio of the number of blocks incorrectly received to the total

number of blocks sent.

Bounce: What your e-mail does when it cannot get to its recipient – it bounces back to

you – unless it goes off into the ether, never to be found again.

Branch Cable: A cable that diverges from a main cable to reach some secondary


Branching: A computer operation, such as switching, where a choice is made between

two or more possible courses of action depending upon some related fact or condition.

Bridge: Device which interconnects three or more telecommunication channels, such

as telephone lines. A telephone conference audio bridge links three or more telephones

(usually operated assisted). Usually a meet-me audio bridge or provides a

teleconference direct dial access number. Both connect remote sites and equalize noise


Bridges, Gateway, Routers: Devices that convert LANs to other LANs, computers and

WANs by allowing systems running on different media (copper wire, fiber optics, etc.)

and protocols (rules to communicate).

Bridging Amplifier: An amplifier connected directly into the main trunk of the CATV

system. It serves as a sophisticated tap, providing isolation from the main trunk, and

has multiple high level outputs that provide signal to the feeder portion of the distribution

network. Synonymous with bridger and distribution amplifier.

Broadband: Communications channels that are capable of carrying a wide range of

frequencies. Broadcast television, cable television, microwave and satellite are

examples of broadband technologies. These technologies are capable of carrying a

great deal of information in a short amount of time, but are more expensive to use than

technologies like telephone which require less band width. Broadband (Wideband)

distribution systems. A telecommunications medium that carries high frequency signals;

includes television frequencies of 3 to 6 megahertz. Broadband distribution systems

work like cable TV, in that up to twenty channels are available from a single coaxial

cable. A main trunk cable will originate at the control room, and run down the hallways

of the viewing area. Smaller cables can tie into the main cable at any point along its

length. Any room that is near the main cable run can have access to all of the channels

Telecommunications Glossary/11

on the system. Normal television sets are used, and a variety of channels can be

received by simply changing channels on the television set.

Broadband Network: A local area network (LAN) residing on coaxial cable capable of

transporting multiple data, voice and video channels.

Broadcasting: The dissemination of any form of radio electric communications by

means of Hertzian waves intended to be received by the public. Transmission through

space, utilizing preassigned radio frequencies, which are capable of being received

aurally or visually by an audience. The one-way transmission of information.

Brokers: Organizations which maintain primary leases or ownership of communications

satellite time and provide subleases to teleconference originators.

Buffer: Temporary storage facility used as an interface between system elements

whose data rates are different; Memory area in computer or peripheral device used for

temporary storage of information that has just been received. The information is held in

the buffer until the computer or device is ready to process it. Hence, a computer or

device with memory designated as a buffer area can process one set of data while more

sets are arriving.

Bug: A system or programming problem. Also refers to the cause of any hardware or

software malfunction. May be random or non-random.

Bundle: A package that includes several products for one price. For example, a CDROM

drive, with controller card, cable, software, and one or more CD-ROMs.

Bus Interface: An electronic pathway between CPUs and input/output devices. A bus

interface for a CD-ROM drive consists of a controller card and cable.

Business Television – BTV: Corporate use of video transmission for meetings/training

via satellite.

Burst: 1. In data communication, a sequence of signals counted as one unit in

accordance with some specific criterion or measure. 2. A color burst.

Burst Modem: In satellite communications, an electronic device used at each station

that sends high-speed bursts of data which are interleaved with one another. These

bursts must be precisely timed to avoid data collisions with multiple stations.

Burst Transmission: Data transmission at a specific data signaling rate during

controlled intermittent fiintervals.

Bus: A circuit or group of circuits which provide an electronic pathway between two or

more central processing units (CPUs) or input/output devices.

Bus Controller: The unit in charge of generating bus commands and control signals.

Telecommunications Glossary/12

Byte: A group of bits treated as a unit used to represent a character in some coding

systems. The values of the bits can be varied to form as many as 256 permutations.

Hence, one byte of memory can represent an integer from 0 to 255 or from -127 to

+128. The unit of computer memory typically consists of eight bits; 64K, 64,000 bytes or

64 kilobytes.

Byte: Primary and secondary memory (RAM and magnetic media) are measured in

kilobytes (1,024, or 210 bytes) and megabytes (one million bytes).

Telecommunications Glossary/13


C-Band: A category of satellite transmissions which transmit from earth at 4.0 to 6.0

GHz and receive from the satellite at between 3.7 and 4.2 GHz which are also shared

with terrestrial line-of-sight microwave users. This band of transmissions has less path

loss than the other standard used for satellites (Ku-Band) but must have a large

antenna for the same receiver input power level due to its use of longer wavelength

frequencies. Other problems relating to the use of C-Band include the shared use of

these frequencies with terrestrial microwave transmission which cause interference with

the weaker satellite signals in certain areas.

Cable/Cable Television: A broadband communications technology in which multiple

television channels as well as audio and data signals are transmitted either one way or

bidirectionally through a distribution system to single or multiple specified locations.

Uses coaxial cable to transmit programs. Direct-by-wire transmission to homes from a

common antenna to which these homes are linked. Cable companies provide the

service in most cases. Distinguished from television reception through a roof-top

antenna that picks up the broadcast signal. The only acronym was CATV, denoting

community antenna television.

Cable Television Channel Classes:

Class I Source is a television broadcast signal that is being presently transmitted

to the public and conveyed to the cable system for retransmission to the public,

direct connection, off-the-air or obtained indirectly by microwave or by direct

connection to a television broadcast station.

Class II: A signaling path provided by a cable television system to deliver to

subscriber terminals television signals that are intended for reception by a

television broadcast receiver without the use of an auxiliary decoding device and

whose signals are not involved in a broadcast transmission path.

Class III: A signaling path provided by a cable television system to deliver to

subscriber terminals signals that are intended for reception by equipment other

than a television broadcast receiver or by a television receiver only when used

with auxiliary decoding equipment.

Class IV: A signaling path provided by a cable television system to transfer

signals of any type from a subscriber terminal to another point in the cable

television system.

Cablecasting: Origination of programming, usually other than automated

alphanumeric services, by a CATV system.

Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984: This act, passed by Congress in 1984,

updated the original Communications Act of 1934. The primary changes dealt with cable

television regulation, theft of service, equal employment opportunity (EEO) an various

licensing procedure changes.

Telecommunications Glossary/14

Cable Compatible: Generally refers to consumer devices, such as television sets and

videocassette recorders, that are designed and constructed to allow direct connection of

a CATV subscriber drop to the device. Frequently, they have a tuner capable of

receiving cable channels other than 2-13 (e.g., midband, superband, and hyperband

channels). Even though a device may be cable compatible, it may still require an

external descrambler to receive scrambled channels such as the premium pay channels

or pay-per-view channels.

Cache: In a processing unit, a high-speed buffer storage that is continually updated to

contain recently accessed contents of main storage. Its purpose is to reduce access

time. A holding area for data within the CD-ROM drive itself or on its interface board,

that allows the system a method for matching data transfer rates and presentation

speed requirements.

CAD: Computer Aided Design.

CAI: Computer Assisted Instruction.

Camera: In television, an electronic device utilizing an optical system and a lightsensitive

pick-up tube to convert visual images into electrical impulses.

Camera Control Unit # CCU: An electronic device that provides all the operating

voltages and signals for the proper set up, adjustment and operation of a television


Candle Power: A measure of intensity of a light source in a specific direction.

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio: In cable television, the ratio of peak carrier power to root mean

square (RMS) noise power in a 4 MHz bandwidth.

CATV- Community Antenna Television: A broadband communications system

capable of delivering multiple channels of entertainment programming and nonentertainment

information from a set of centralized antennas, generally by coaxial cable,

to a community. Many cable television designs integrate microwave and satellite links

into their overall design, and some now include fiber optics.

Carrier: Vendor of transmission services operating under terms defined by the FCC as

a common carrier. Owns a transmission medium and rents, leases or sells portions for a

set tariff to the public via shared circuits.

CAV – Constant Angular Velocity: A disk that rotates at a constant rate of speed.

Examples are hard drives, floppy disks, magneto-optical discs and some videodiscs. A

CAV videodisc permits access to video within seconds, allows for up to 54,000 still

frames, or may contain up to 30 minutes of full motion video (or any combination of stills

and video). (See CLV)

CBT – Computer Based Training: The use of interactive computer or video programs

for instructional purposes.

Telecommunications Glossary/15

CCITT: Consultative Committee on International Telephony and Telegraphy; An

international standards group.

CCITT Standard: Transmission rate of Px64 or multiples.

CCL – Connection Control Language: A scripting language that allows the user to

control a modem.

CCTV: Closed-Circuit Television. The system for sending cable signals to subscribers

or designated locations.

CD-Audio: Also called CD-DA for Compact Disc-Digital Audio. The use of CDs to

record music in digital audio format. The disc holds a sequence of audio tracks. Each

can be a very high-fidelity stereo recording. These discs can be played on conventional

CD players, CD-I systems and at least some CD-ROM drives. Standards for this are

called the Red Book.

CD audio jack: An outlet on a CD-ROM drive that provides audio playback through

speakers or headphones. Only Red Book, or true CD-Audio sound can be heard from

the audio jack on a CD-ROM drive.

CD-ROM Compact Disc – Read Only Memory: CD-ROM discs can store a variety of

data types including text, color graphics, sound, animation and digitized video that can

be accessed and read through a computer. A disc can store up to 600 megabytes of

data, much more information that can be stored on a 3.5 inch compute disk, which hold

up to 1.4 megabytes. This makes CD-ROM an inexpensive medium for storing large

amounts of data. Because CD-ROM was not designed to store digitized, full-motion

video, compression technology is important in compressing data to fit on a disc as well

as decompressing data for playback.

CD-I: 1. Compact Disc-Interactive. Stores text, audio, video, images and animation.

Requires a CD-I player and will not work on a regular CD-ROM player. 2. This

interactive multimedia system, developed by Philips and Sony, connects to a television

and stereo audio system. The standards for this are called the Green Book.

CD-R: CD-Recordable Term used to describe special players and media which enable

the creation of a single CD-ROM, written from the PC as if it were a magnetic disk drive.

The end product, however, is a read-only disc: it cannot be erased or written over.

Therefore, this technology is also known as “write-once CD.” See CD-WO.

CD-ROM: A laser-encoded optical memory storage medium, defined by the Yellow

Book standard.

CD-ROM Drive: A computer peripheral that plays CD-ROMs.

CD-ROM XA: CD-ROM Extended Architecture: A compact disc standard that permits

the interleaving of compressed audio and video tracks for sound and animation

synchronization. Based on the Yellow Book, it also uses some elements of the Green

Book (CD-I).

Telecommunications Glossary/16

CD-WO – Compact Disc-Write Once: A term that describes compact discs that can be

written to directly (rather than mass produced) with a laser recorder. Recent

developments allow the CD-WO to be appendable. CD-WO media is physically defined

by the Orange Book standard, Part II, and a proposal for the logical format has been

submitted to ECMA by the Frankfort Group.

Center Clipper: Variable attenuator which is used to eliminate any residual echo left by

the echo canceller. A key difference between one canceller and another is the manner

in which this center clipper operates. In a high quality canceller, the center clipper will

operate very rapidly and smoothly, resulting in no residual echo during double-talk and

no clipping of syllables. The center clipper is in essence a level- activated switch.

Signals above the threshold level are passed unaltered and signals below the threshold

are blocked. When speech is present in both directions, the center clipper tends to

mutilate the speech signal, adding audible amounts of harmonic and intermodulation

distortion. This distortion is often referred to as “glitch” and sounds remarkably like its

name when it occurs. The transmit signal can be totally chopped out if the level of the

transmit signal drops below the estimated level of returning echo.

Central Office: The physical location where communications carriers terminate

customer lines and locate the switching equipment that interconnects those lines.

Central Processing Unit – CPU: The unit of a computer that includes circuits

controlling the interpretation and execution of instructions.

Channel: A signal path of specified bandwidth for conveying information. 1. A halfcircuit;

2. A radio frequency assignment (which is dependent upon the frequency band

and the geographic location). Channel capacity in a cable television system is the

number of channels that can be simultaneously carried on the system. Generally

defined in terms of the number of 6 MHz (television bandwidth) channels.

CFDA – Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance: The CFDA is a government-wide

compilation of federal programs, projects, services and activities that provide assistance

or benefits to the American public. The primary purpose of the CFDA is to assist users

in identifying programs that meet specific objectives of a potential applicant, and to

obtain general information on federal assistance programs. The catalog is published

once yearly, usually in June. An update occurs around December.

CFR – Code of Federal Regulations: The CFR is the “book” of federal laws and

regulations. Usually referenced like this, 34 CFR 74.137. The “34” indicates that the

subject of the regulation is education. The “70.137” refers to a specific paragraph.

Character Generator: An alphanumeric text generator, a typewriter like device,

commonly used to display messages on a television set. Chyron is a brand name for a

character generator which is often mistakenly used to cover all character generators

generically. Some sophisticated models also include color, graphics, and mass memory

for text storage.

Telecommunications Glossary/17

Charge-Coupled Device – CCD: A solid-state device used in many television cameras

to convert optical images into electronic signals. These imagers are organized into rows

and columns called pixels. The charge pattern formed in the CCD pixels when light

strikes them forms the electronic representation of the image.

Chip: A thin silicon wafer on which electronic components are deposited in the form of

integrated circuits; the basis of digital systems.

Chip Sets: Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are being developed for use

in video application products such as codecs, desktop video, and home satellite

entertainment. ASICs operate more like computer hardware. Programmable chips

operate much like computer software. The chip sets meet the CCITT H.261

compression standard and will be the driving force in the widespread use of video

communications technology because they will lower the cost and open up the

technology to a much larger group of users.

Chroma Key: In color television, an electronic matting process of inserting one image

over a background. Used very commonly with weathercasters who are standing in front

of a blank wall painted process blue. The electronics remove the blue and insert the

weather map so that on the television screen the two images merge and the

weathercaster appears to be standing in front of a large map painted on the wall.

Chrominance Signal: The color signal component in color television that represents

the hue and saturation levels of the colors in the picture.

Circuit: Means of two-way communication between two or more points. 1. In

communication systems, an electronic, electrical, or electromagnetic path between two

or more points capable of providing a number of channels. 2. Electric or electronic part.

3. Optical or electrical component that serves a specific function or functions.

Circular Polarization: A mode of transmission in which signals are downlinked in a

rotating corkscrew pattern. A satellite’s transmission-capacity can be doubled by using

both right-hand and left-hand circular polarization.

Closed Circuit Television – CCTV: A private television system in which signals are

sent usually via cable, to selected viewing points throughout the distribution system but

are not broadcast to the public. The signal does not have to meet FCC commercial


CLV – Constant Linear Velocity: A disc that rotates at a varying rate of speed.

Examples are CD-Audio, CD-ROM, CD-I, CD-ROM XA, and some videodiscs. CLV

videodiscs may contain up to one hour of full motion video, but still frames and quick

access time are forfeited. (See CAV.)

CMC: Computer mediated communication.

C/N – C/NR – Carrier to Noise Ratio: Refers to the ratio of the satellite carrier (or

signal) to noise level in a given channel. Usually measured in dB at the LNA output.

Coaxial Cable – Coax: A type of metal cable used for broadband data and cable

systems. It has excellent broadband frequency characteristics, noise immunity and

Telecommunications Glossary/18

physical durability. Consisting of a center conductor in the form of a tube which carries

broadband signals by guiding high-frequency electromagnetic radiation, insulating

dielectric, conductive shield, and optional protective covering.

Co-Channel Interference: Interference on a channel caused by another signal

operating on the same fichannel.

Codec: A COder-DECoder converts analog signals, (voice or video), into digital form (1

or 0) for transmission over a digital medium and, upon reception at a second codec, reconverts

the signals to the original analog form. Two codecs are needed – one at each

end of the channel.

Collaborative Learning: Collaborative learning involves a group working together

through technology to delve into content. Students can electronically access other

students, the instructor and resources.

Color Bars and Tone: A color standard test pattern used by the television industry to

adjust equipment to standard levels. The tone is generated at a certain preset frequency

so that audio levels can be set.

Color Burst: In NTSC terminology, refers to a burst of approximately nine cycles of

3.58 MHz subcarrier on the back porch of the composite video signal. This serves as a

color synchronizing signal to establish a frequency and phase reference for the

chrominance signal.

Color Signal: Any signal at any point in a color television system for wholly or partially

controlling the chromaticity values of a color television picture.

Color Subcarrier: In NTSC color, the 3.58 MHz subcarrier whose modulation

sidebands are interleaved with the video luminance signal to convey color information.

Color Transmission: A method of transmitting color television signals which can

reproduce the different values of hue, saturation, and luminance which together make

up a color picture.

Combining Network: A passive network which permits the combining of several

signals into one output with a high degree of isolation between individual inputs;

commonly used in CATV headends to combine the outputs of all processors and

modulators into a single coaxial cable input. Synonymous with combiner.

Command Line: On Unix host systems, this is where you tell the machine what you

want it to do, by entering commands.

Common Carrier: Usually a telecommunications company that owns a transmission

medium and rents, leases or sells portions for a set tariff to the general public via

shared circuits through published and nondiscriminatory rates. In the U.S., common

carriers are regulated by the FCC or various state public utility commissions.

Communications Satellite Corporation – COMSAT: A common carrier service that

provides commercial communications services.

Telecommunications Glossary/19

Communications Satellite: Relay system in orbit above earth for telecommunications

signals (voice, video, data); require earth stations to transmit and receive signals at the

ground locations. Commonly called a “bird.”

Communications Software: A program that tells a modem how to work.

Compatible: Describes different hardware devices that can use the same software or

programs without modification, or with appropriate software.

Compression: The application of any of several techniques that reduce the amount of

information required to represent that information in data transmission. This method

reduces the required bandwidth and/or memory.

Compressed Video: Processes video images; transmits changes fro one frame to the

next which reduces the bandwidth to send them over a telecommunications channel;

reduces cost. Also called bandwidth compression, data compression or bit rate

reduction. The most publicized compression techniques are proposed by two expert

groups, that of JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group) and MPEG (Moving Picture

Expert Group), who are defining methods for image compression in still frame and realtime

video. The algorithm used by these two groups is called discrete cosine transform

(DCT). DCT transforms a block of pixels into a matrix of coefficients and estimates

redundancy in the matrix. The advantage of JPEG and MPEG is that the algorithms are

symmetrical; that is, the same amount of processing is required for the encode and

decode functions. These are ideal for two-way applications such as videoconferencing.

CompuServe – CompuServe Information Service – CIS: One of the oldest and largest

commercial computer network services.

Computer: A functional unit that can perform substantial computations, including

numerous arithmetic operations or logic operations, often without intervention by a

human operator.

Computer-Aided Design – CAD: A computer system whereby engineers create a

design and see the proposed product in front of them on a graphics screen or in the

form of a computer printout.

Computer Conferencing: Allows individuals at different locations to communicate with

each other through computers. This could be through a chat room, e-mail, a classroom

environment created by software. It might include text, audio, video, or shared work

spaces on which all participants can type or draw.

Conferencing: A term used to indicate when several network users communicate on a

particular subject. Conferences can be “live” or conducted via a BBS (see above).

Connect Time: Time period during which a user is utilizing a computer on-line – or

directly connected with the computer.

Telecommunications Glossary/20

Connect Time Charges: Most networks charge users for the time they spend on-line.

These are referred to as connect time charges. The amount charged depends on the

network’s fee schedule. Users must also pay a separate fee if the call to connect is toll.

Control Room: A room separate from a studio in which the director, the technical

director (TD), the audio engineer, and other technical and program assistants control

program production.

CONUS: Contiguous United States.

Consortium: Voluntary group affiliated for a purpose. Consortia is plural.

Continuous Presence Video: Simultaneous and continuous pictures of participants.

Convergence – Digital Fusion: The merging of video, audio, and data communications

through digitization of the media. The equipment to receive the signals is projected to be

a telecomputer.

Cooperative Learning: This learning model is based on specific group rewards for

team members’ learning and task specialization. Students work together to solve

problems and locate information,

Courseware: Software used in teaching. Often used to describe computer programs

designed for the classroom.

Crash: An abrupt, unplanned computer system shutdown caused by a hardware or

software malfunction.

Crawl: A visual technique; electronically generated words or graphics that move

horizontally or crawl across the screen, usually at the bottom.

Crawl Space: Space for textual messages usually at the bottom of the television


Credits: The names of people on whom the production can be blamed. Electronically

generated words that usually move horizontally up the screen like a scroll, or inserted a

page at a time.

CREN: Corporation for Research and Educational Networking.

Crosstalk: 1. Undesired transfer of signals from one circuit to another circuit. 2. The

phenomenon whereby a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a

communications system is detectable or creates an undesirable effect in another circuit

or channel.

Cue: Signal to start, pace, or stop any type of production activity or talent action.

Telecommunications Glossary/21

Cursor: A symbol on the display of an editing or display terminal that can be moved up,

down, or sideways and indicates where the next character is to be located or where

“home” or beginning is located.

Cut: A command that stops all action in actual production; or a visual technique for

changing abruptly from one picture to an entirely different one; for example, quick cuts

in which many different visuals appear rapidly one after another on the screen.

Cyberphobic: A person who is fearful of working in cyperspace.

Cyberspace: Coined by science fiction writer William Gibson in the 1970s, it describes

the virtual place of computer memory, networks, and multimedia.

Telecommunications Glossary/22


D1 and D2: Digital tape component and composite formats (respectively) used for

professional video recording. D1 is costlier than D2. Both can go through many

generations of dubbing without visible loss of picture quality.

Daemon: An otherwise harmless Unix program that normally works out of sight of the

user. On the Internet, you’ll most likely encounter it only when your e-mail is not

delivered to your recipient – you’ll get back your original message plus an ugly message

from a “mailer daemon” saying the message was undeliverable.

Daisy Chain: A way to connect computers – one after another along a single line.

DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Pentagon. Replaced


Data: Any and all information, facts, numbers, letters, symbols, etc. which can be acted

on or produced by the computer.

Database: Organized collection of files and information stored on a computer disk/drive

available for update and retrieval.

Data Communications: 1. The movement of encoded information by means of

electrical or electronic transmission systems. 2. The transmission of data from one point

to another over communications channels.

Data Compression: A technique that saves storage space by eliminating gaps, empty

fields, redundancies, or unnecessary data to shorten the length of records or blocks.

DBS – Direct Broadcast Satellite: Service uses high powered satellites to broadcast

multiple channels of TV programming to inexpensive, small-dish antennas at homes for

direct on-site reception of signals.

DCT – Discrete Cosine Transform: Compression algorithm.

Debug: To detect, trace, and eliminate mistakes in computer programs or in other


Dedicated Lines: Leased telecommunications circuits that are devoted to a specific

application; a circuit designated for exclusive use by two users; i.e., for interactive

portion of a teleconference.

Dedicated System: Videoconferencing equipment, transmission circuits, and

teleconferencing facilities that are permanent and used on a regularly scheduled basis

as opposed to rented for a one-time or ad hoc event.

Default: A standard setting or action taken by hardware or software if the user has not

specified otherwise.

Telecommunications Glossary/23

Definition: Also called resolution. The fidelity with which detail is reproduced by a

television system ranging from a fuzzy to a sharp appearance.

Degausser: 1. Demagnetizer. 2. A device for bulk erasing magnetic tape.

Delay: Time it takes for a signal to go from sending station through the satellite to

receiving station.

Demodulate: To retrieve an information carrying signal from a modulated carrier. A

demodulator is a device that removes the modulation from a carrier signal.

Dial up – Dialup: To call another computer via modem. A connection or line reached by

modem, as in “a dialup line.”

Dial-Up Teleconferencing: Using public phone line to connect with a teleconference,

either with or without operator assistance.

Dielectric: A non-conductive insulator material between the center conductor and

shield of coaxial cable. The dielectric constant determines the propagation velocity.

Digirati: Literati who do everything digitally.

Digital: Discrete bits of information in numerical steps. A form of information that is

represented by signals encoded as a series of discrete numbers, intervals or steps, as

contrasted to continuous or analog circuits. Digital signals can be sent through wire or

over the air. The method allows simultaneous transmission of voice and data. All digital

technology is emerging as the primary transmission mode for voice, video, data and

facsimile; Information represented by signals encoded as a series of discrete numbers,

intervals or steps. Can be sent through wire or over the air. Allows simultaneous

transmission of voice, video and data.

Digital Computer: A computer that operates on discrete data by performing arithmetic

and logic processes on these data.

Digital Media: Refers to any type of information in digital form including computergenerated

text, graphics and animations, as well as photographs, animation, sound, and


Digital Transmission: The transmission of information in the form of “1s” and “0s.”

Information customarily sent in this form is related to computer data traffic which is

already in digital form. Other communications include audio and video.

Digital Video Effects – DVE: Video effects accomplished through digital devices that

manipulate the video; e.g., page turns, revolves, boxes that zoom into and out of the

picture, images that turn into pixels, etc.

Digitized Audio: Allows the incorporation of audio materials with other media to

present information over a computer network or through the Internet. With this method,

Telecommunications Glossary/24

the audio is contained.Various software programs “stream” the audio signal so that it

can be heard as it is being said.

Digitizer: A device that converts an analog signal (either images or sound) into a digital

signal that can be manipulated on the computer. Video capture boards convert video

images from video sources such as the VCR or video camera, while sound digitizers

take any sounds, the spoken word as well as music off of a cassette or CD player, and

turn them into digital data. That data can be edited using sound editing and multimedia


Diode: An electronic device used to permit current flow in one direction and to inhibit

current flow in the other.

Directional Microphone: A microphone that detects and transmits sound from only a

certain direction. Useful in preventing unwanted sound from being transmitted.

Direct Read After Write – DRAW: A laser based technology for recording data on a


Disc: Preferred usage (spelling) of the term for reference to optical storage media, such

as CD-Audio, CD-I, CD-ROM, videodisc, or WORM.

Disk: Preferred usage (spelling) of the term for reference to magnetic media, such as

floppy and hard disks.

Disk – Disc: A record-like magnetic-coated piece of material that can store digital

information; may be a hard disk or pliable floppy disk.

Disk Drive: A computer data storage device in which data is stored on the magnetic

coating (similar to that on magnetic tape) of a rotating disk.

Dish: Parabolic antenna. Primary element of a satellite earth station; sends and/or

receives satellite signals. Usually bowl-shaped; concentrates signals to a single focal

point. The antenna cross section exposed to the signal is the aperture.

Display: The visual presentation on the indicating device of an instrument.

Dissolve: Gradual transition from one television picture to the next by fading out one

picture and simultaneously fading in another.

Distance Learning: Educational situations which use telecommunications devices to

deliver content, exchange information, allow student interaction, and other educational

activities. Technologies might include one, all, or some of the following technologies;

satellite, DBS, compressed video, broadcast television, cable, fiber optics, computer,

classroom created in a computer environment, telephone, computer chat rooms, audio

conferencing, e-mail, listservs, audio tapes, video tapes, CD-ROMs, simulations,

textbooks, worksheets/workbooks, Internet access to resources, fax machine,

instructor/facilitators at one or all sites. Learners could be in age groups for early

childhood, K-12, higher education, or training. Courses might be for credit, continuing

Telecommunications Glossary/25

education credit, or required by an employer. There has been an effort to limit the

number of technologies included in this definition. This counter-productive effort

minimizes the overall impact of distance learning and grants “status” to a few. Because

the use of multiple technologies meets the learning style needs of all students, the

inclusion of many technologies represents the student-centered approach that we


Distortion: An undesired change in wave form of a signal in the course of its passage

through a transmission system.

Distributed Data Processing: Data processing in which some or all of the processing,

storage, and control functions, in addition to input-output functions, are situated in

different places and connected by transmission facilities.

Distributed Function: The use of programmable terminals, controllers, and other

devices to perform operations that were previously done by the processing unit, such as

managing data links, controlling devices, and formatting data.

Distribution: A way to limit where your Usenet postings go. Handy for such things as

“for sale” messages or discussions of regional politics.

Distribution Systems: Any program that can be received by the satellite antenna, can

be distributed into several viewing areas. The distribution system is one or more wires

that run from the earth station control room, into several classrooms or conference

rooms. Broadband wiring systems use a single coaxial cable, while baseband systems

use several twisted-pair wires. Both systems must be custom designed for each

location, using high output amplifiers and exact cable lengths.

Domain: The last part of an Internet address, such as “news.com.” The zones include:


mil-military site

com-commercial organizations

gov-government body or department

net-networking organization

int-international organization (mostly NATO)

org-anything that doesn’t fit elsewhere, such as a professional society

Domestic Satellite: A satellite that provides communication services primarily to one


DOS: Disk Operating System.

Dot: To impress the Net veterans encountered, parties say “dot” instead of “period.” For

example: “My address is john at site dot domain dot com.”

Dot file: A file on a Unix public-access system that alters the way the user or the

messages interact with that system. For example, a user’s .login file contains various

parameters for such things as the text editor used when a message is sent. When an ls

command is done, these files do not appear in the directory listing; do ls -a to list them.

Telecommunications Glossary/26

Double speed drive: Refers to a CD-ROM drive that will read certain kinds of data

faster than the standard requires (155KB/sec). Many drives now have 300KB/sec

transfer rates (also known as twice the standard, or 2X); at least one claims 600KB/sec


Double-Talk: The situation where parties at both ends of a conference are speaking

simultaneously. A quality echo canceller will provide a continuous speech path in both

directions during double-talk.

Down: When a public-access site runs into technical trouble, and you can no longer

gain access to it, it’s down.

Downconverter: A device used to lower the frequency of any signal.

Downlink: Transmission of radio frequency signals from a satellite to an earth station

(verb). A satellite receiving station (noun).

Download: 1. Transfer data from a main computer or memory to a remote computer or

terminal. 2. There are several different methods, or protocols, for downloading files,

most of which periodically check the file as it is being copied to ensure no information is

inadvertently destroyed or damaged during the process. Some, such as XMODEM, only

let you download one file at a time. Others, such as batch-YMODEM and ZMODEM, let

you type in the names of several files at once, which are then automatically


Downstream: An audio or video signal traveling from the cable TV headend to a

subscriber point in the community.

Drive bay: The opening in a computer chassis designed to hold a floppy drive, hard

drive, CD-ROM drive, tape drive or other device. May be half-height or full-height,

exposed or internal.

Drop-Outs: Black or white lines or spots appearing in a television picture originating

from the playback of a video tape recording.

DS1: Digital signal level 1; a digital transmission format in which 24 voice channels are

multiplexed into one T1 channel.

DS3: Digital signal level 3; a telephony term describing the 45 mbps signal carried on a

T3 facility. It is most often associated with broadcast video transmission. Although the

broadcast purest will rightfully point out that as a digital signal it is not a true broadcast

quality RS-250B standard signal, it is the nearest approximation to a broadcast signal in

a digital environment.

DSP: Digital signal processing.

Telecommunications Glossary/27

DTMF – Dual Tone Multiple Frequencies: Standard telephone signaling technique

which can be used through any transmission medium of voice grade or better. he

technique is often used for remote switching control functions.

Dual Band Capability: Many receivers are capable of both C and Kuband operation.

Dub – Dupe – Duplicate: The duplication of an electronic recording. Dubs can be made

from tape to tape in video, or from record to tape in audio. In video, one generation of

quality is usually lost between each duplicate except when using high grade broadcast

equipment and one inch wide tape. Usually a video tape that appears fuzzy and the

colors have lost clarity, it is a 3rd, 4th, or 5th generation tape – in other words, a copy, of

a copy, of a copy, of a copy, of a copy.

Duplex: In a communications channel the ability to transmit in both directions.

DVI – Digital Video Interactive: DVI is a programmable (variable bit and frame rate)

compression and decompression technology developed by Intel offering two distinct

levels and qualities of compression and decompression for motion video. Both PLV and

RTV use variable compression rates. Production Level Video (PLV), a proprietary

asymmetrical compression technique that is well suited for encoding full motion, color

video requires compression to be performed by Intel at its facilities or licensed encoding

facilities set up by Intel. PLV emulates MPEG. It has a very high image quality. Real

Time Video (RTV) provides comparable image quality to frame-rate (motion) JPEG and

uses a symmetrical variable rate compression. To provide expanded still image editing

features, future versions of Intel’s DVI will be JPEG compliant.

Telecommunications Glossary/28


E-Layer: A heavily ionized signal-reflecting region location 50-70 miles above the

surface of the earth, within the ionosphere.

E-mail – Electronic mail: The term for private messages sent as files from one

computer to another, either over a local area network (LAN), or via modem over the

phone lines. E-mail is like having your own private mail box on a network. Used as both

a noun and verb. Mail can be sent between Internet and commercial services such as

American On Line.

Earth Station: The location antenna used to send or receive signals to satellites

normally located in the geostationary orbit. A parabolic antenna and associated

electronics for receiving or transmitting satellite signals.

Echo: The reflections of signal energy that cause it to return to the transmitter or to the


Echo Canceller: Eliminates audio transmission echo. A telephone line echo canceller

produces a synthetic replica of the echo it expects to see returning and subtracts it from

the transmitted speech. The replica it creates is based on the transmission

characteristics of the telephone cable between the echo canceller and the telephone


Echo Reduction: A newer method of echo control, developed in 1988, uses attenuation

in a new way to subjectively reduce the returned echo without the mutilation

(choppiness, level drops, distortion) found in suppressers or center clippers. It rapidly

and momentarily applies a variable amount of attenuation in between transmitted

speech peaks (where the echo would be audible). It compares the transmit and receive

signals to determine the likelihood of objectionable echo in the transmit signal, then

calculates and inserts the appropriate amount of attenuation for that instant to control

the echo. During outgoing speech peaks, the echo is masked by the strong local speech

and rendered inaudible to the listener so that no attenuation is required.

Editor: A computer program used to edit (prepare for processing) text or data.

Educational Access Channel: A cable television channel specifically designated for

use by local education authorities.

Edutainment: Multimedia designed for teaching. It’s based on the theory that learning

doesn’t have to be boring.

EFM: Eight to fourteen modulation.

Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory – EAROM: A type of memory that is

nonvolatile, like ROM, but can be altered, or have data written into it, like RAM.

Electromagnetic Interference: Any electromagnetic energy, natural or man-made,

which may adversely affect performance of the system.

Telecommunications Glossary/29

Electromagnetic Spectrum: The frequency range of electromagnetic radiation that

includes radio waves, light and X-rays. At the low frequency end are sub-audible

frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) and at the other end, extremely high frequencies (e.g., X-rays,

cosmic rays).

Electronic Blackboard or Whiteboard: A device that looks like an ordinary blackboard

or whiteboard, but has a special conductive surface for producing free-hand information

that can be sent over a telecommunications channel, usually a telephone line.

Electronic Editing: The process by which audio and/or video material is added to a

previously recorded tape in such a manner that continuous audio and/or video signals


Electro-Mechanical Pen: A device that has an electronic pen with a mechanical arm

for producing free-hand information that can be sent over a telecommunication channel,

usually a telephone line.

Electronic Editing: In videotapes, a process by which picture and sound elements (live

or pre- recorded) are joined together without physically cutting the tape. In sophisticated

editing suites, this is done by computer.

Electronic Mail – E-Mail: A system of electronic communication whereby an individual

sends a message to another individual or group of people; includes computer mail and

facsimile (FAX).

Elevation: The location of the satellite in the sky from your viewing site. How high

above the horizon the satellite is, which is called elevation or altitude which is measured

in degrees.

EMACS: A standard Unix text editor preferred by Unix types that beginners tend to


EMI: Electronic mediated instruction.

Emoticon: See “Smiley”.

Encoder: A device that electronically alters a signal (encrypts) so that it can be clearly

seen only by recipients that have a decoder which reverses the encryption process.

Encryption: An encoder electronically alters a signal so that it can be clearly seen only

by recipients who have a decoder to reverse encryption. Selective

addressability/scrambling designates receivers to descramble a signal. Each decoder

has a unique “address.”

End of Tape Sensing: A form of sensing (optically or mechanically) that automatically

stops the tape transport at the end of tape or upon breakage of tape.

Telecommunications Glossary/30

End User: The ultimate last user of a telecommunications system whether or not it is a

student within a school, business or a subscriber on a cable television system.

ENG: Electronic news gathering.

Enter: To place on the line a message to be transmitted from a terminal to the


EPROM: Erasable-Programmable Read-Only Memory.

EPS – Electronic Performance Support System: A computer supported just-in-time

information system that might hold instruction manuals and other information on how to

perform the tasks at hand.

EROM – Erasable Read-Only Memory: In a computer, the read-only memory (ROM)

that can be erased and reprogrammed. Synonymous with erasable-programmable readonly

memory (EPROM)

ESEA: Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. This acronym is used mainly

when referring to programs by their legislative authorization. The most common

example is the “Chapter 1” series of programs.

Ethernet: Baseband protocol and technology developed by Xerox and widely supported

by manufacturers; a packet technology that operates at 10 mbps over coaxial cable and

allows terminals, concentrators, work stations and hosts to communicate with each


ETV: Educational television.

Eudora: E-mail program.

Execute: To perform the operations required by an instruction, command or program.

Telecommunications Glossary/31


F2F – Face to Face: When you actually meet those people you been corresponding


Facilitator: In adult education (androgogy), the person responsible for a class who acts

as a guide and resource to the students. The person responsible for the local

component of a video teleconference site is normally called a facilitator.

Facsimile – FAX: A devce which uses a form of electronic transmission allowing

movement of hard-copy documents from widely separated geographic areas via a

telecommunications channel, usually a telephone line. Usually called a FAX machine

now but previously was called a telecopier.

FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions: A compilation of answers to these. Many Usenet

newsgroups have these files, which are posted once a month or so for beginners.

FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface: 1. Transports data up to speeds of 100 Mbps.

2. FDDI is a high-speed (100Mb) token ring LAN.

FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access: Refers to the use of multiple carriers

within the same satellite transponder where each uplink has an assigned frequency slot

and bandwidth.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC): An independent government agency

established by the Communications Act of 1934 to regulate the broadcasting industry.

The Commission later assumed authority over cable. The FCC is administered by seven

commissioners and reports to Congress. The FCC assigns broadcasting frequencies,

licenses stations, and oversees interstate communications.

FEC – Forward Error Correction: Adds unique codes to the digital signal at the source

so errors can be detected and corrected at the receiver.

Feedback: In video; wild streaks and flashes on the monitor screen caused by re-entry

of a video signal into the switcher and subsequent over-amplification. In audio, piercing

squeal from the loudspeaker caused by the accidental re-entry of the loudspeaker

sound into the microphone and is over-amplified. Feedback can also occur when using

a conference telephone while the TV volume is too loud.

Feeder Cables: The coaxial cables that take signals from the trunk line to the

subscriber area and to which subscriber taps are attached. Synonymous with feeder


Fetch: Macintosh program for retrieving files via FTP.

Fiber Optics: Communications medium based on a laser transmission that uses a

glass or plastic fiber which carries light to transmit video, audio, or data signals. Each

fiber can carry from 90 to 150 megabits of digital information per second or 1,000 voice

Telecommunications Glossary/32

channels. Transmission can be simplex (one-way) or duplex (two-way) voice, data, and

video service.

Field: One-half of a video frame two fields equal one frame or a full video screen. One

field will contain all of the odd or even scanning lines of the picture.

Field Blanking Interval: The period provided at the end of the field picture signals

primarily to allow time for the vertical sweep circuits in receivers to return the electron

beam completely to the top of the raster before the picture information of the next field


File: An organized collection (in or out of sequence) of records related by a common

format, data source or application.

File Server: A component of a local area network, or LAN, which stores information for

use by clients, or workstations.

Filename Extension: A three-letter (usually) code at the end of a filename that give

some indication as to the type of file in non-Macintosh environments that lack icons or

other methods of identifying files. Common extensions include .txt for text files, .hqx for

BinHexed files, .sea for a self-extracting file, and .sit for Stuffit files.

Film at 11: One reaction to an overwrought argument: “Imminent death of the Net

predicted. Film at 11.”

Film Chain: Also called film island, or telecine. Consists of one or two film projectors, a

slide projector, a multiplexer, and a television camera. Converts film and slides to

television signals.

Finger: An Internet program that lets you get some bit of information about another user

or computer, provided they have first created a .plan file.

FIPS: Federal Information Processing Standard.

Fixed Satellite Service – FSS: The earth stations are not mobile. This service generally

provides telephone and TV distribution.

Fixed System: A permanent satellite receive and transmit system. The fixed system is

put in place for regular use and broadcasts are made to the same sites repeatedly. The

fixed systems are used for employee training, product introduction, meetings and other

needs. Most fixed networks are owned by corporations such as Merrill Lynch, Hewlett-

Packard, Sears, J. C. Penney, and General Motors and are not available to outsiders for

videoconference use. However, they can receive teleconferences which are of interest

to them.

Flame: On-line yelling and/or ranting directed at somebody else. Often results in flame

wars, which occasionally turn into holy wars.

Floppy Disk – FD: Out-of-use term for diskette.

Telecommunications Glossary/33

FM Microwave Radio: Ultra-high frequency often used to provide the return link in fully

interactive systems (simplex). It can also be used in duplex to provide two-way fullmotion

video and audio interactivity.

FM Broadcast Band: The band of frequencies extending from 88 to 108 MHz.

FM-TV: Frequency modulated TV.

Follow-up: A Usenet posting that is a response to an earlier message.

Font: A complete set of characters for one style of one typeface (and traditionally, in

metal type, in one size), including upper and lowercase letters, numerals, punctuation

marks, and special characters. Often used to mean the software that renders a

particular typeface. Sometimes used interchangeably with typeface.

Typeface The full range of letters and other characters of a given type design.

Usually includes all the weights and styles, but is sometimes used to mean just

one weight and style.

Type Family A collection of related typefaces, designed to work together

attractively. Also used to mean the collection of weights and styles of a single


Foo/foobar: A sort of on-line algebraic place holder, for example: “If you want to know

when another site is run by a for-profit company, look for an address in the form of


Format: An established system standard in which data is stored.

Footcandle: The unit of illumination equal to 1 lumen per square foot.

Footprint: Earth area covered by a satellite’s signal or beam.

Format – Videotape: Designated by the width of tape and method of recording e.g., 2-

inch Quad, 3/4-inch U-Matic, 1/2-inch VHS, 1/2-inch Beta, 1/2-inch BetaCam.

Format – Programming: Type of program (drama, documentary, newscast, interview,


Fortune Cookie: An inane/witty/profound comment that can be found around the


Four-Wire Circuit: A circuit that has two pairs of conductors (four wires), one pair for

the send channel and one pair for the receive channel; allows two parties to talk and be

heard simultaneously.

Fractal Compression: Compression technique which uses real-time adaption of the

numbers of bits allocated to different colors based upon the present scene.

Telecommunications Glossary/34

Fragmentation: Storing parts of a file in disparate available space on a disk, rather

than contiguously.

Frame: Full screen or frame of video is made up of two fields. Thirty frames is one

second of video.

Frame Relay: A high speed interface between switches and T1 or T3 multiplexers.

Frame relay is a connection-oriented interface that initially will be incorporated into

private T1 and T3 multiplexers. While some carriers have committed to offer public

frame relay service, others consider frame relay to be an “interim technology” and are

focusing on cell relay (see BISDN below). T1 and T3 multiplexers equipped with frame

relay will provide a packet-oriented, HDLC-framed interface to routers and X.25 packet

switches. The packets will be routed to the proper destination by the multiplexers.

Minimal protocol processing enables frame relay multiplexers to achieve high

throughput. Initially, permanent virtual circuits will be supported; later, it is likely that

switched virtual circuits services may also be provided by frame relay. The major

advantage of frame-relay-equipped multiplexers is that only a single connection is

required from the customer premises equipment (routers or X.25 packet switches) to the

multiplexer. Also, with frame relay support in multiplexers, users contend for bandwidth

provided via the multiplexer, and thus line cost efficiencies can be improved.

Frame Store: A video storage and display technique where a single frame of video is

digitized and stored in memory for retrieval and subsequent display or processing. An

electronic device used to store still pictures; a highly sophisticated slide projector used

to insert pre-produced still materials into a live production for visual enhancement. The

graphic material can be words, graphs, quotes, or photographs.

Frame to Frame Differencing: Compression technique which encodes only the

information that represents the difference between successive frames.

Franchise: Authorization issued by a municipal, county, or state government entity

which allows the construction and operation of a cable television system within the

bounds of its governmental authority. The franchise area is the geographical area

specified by a franchise where a cable operator is permitted to provide CATV service.

Freenet: An organization whose goal it is to provide free Internet access in a specific

area, often by working with local schools and libraries. The first and preeminent

example is the Cleveland Freenet. Freenet also refers to the specific Freenet software

and the information services that use it.

Freeze Frame Video: Freeze frame video is one frame of video, saved as an electronic

slide. It can be transmitted by video over a network or saved in a video effects generator

to display when it is needed to illustrate a concept.

Freeware: Software that doesn’t cost anything. It can be distributed freely. However, the

author still holds the copyright which means that the software can’t be modified.

Telecommunications Glossary/35

Freeze Frame: Repeating or holding one frame so that it appears that the action has


Frequency: The number of times a complete electromagnetic wave cycle occurs in a

fixed unit of time, usually one second. The rate at which a current alternates, measured

in Hertz on a telecommunications medium.

Frequency Modulation: The range of frequencies within which an audio device will


FTP – File-transfer Protocol: A system for transferring files across the Internet.

Anonymous FTP is a conventional way of allowing you to sign on to a computer on the

Internet and copy specified public files from it. Some sites offer anonymous FTP to

distribute software and various kinds of information. You use it like any FTP, but the

username is “anonymous”. Many systems will allow any password and request that the

password you choose is your userid. If this fails, the generic password is usually


Full Duplex Audio Channel: An audio channel which allows conversation to take place

interactively and simultaneously between the various parties, without electronically

cutting off one or more participants if someone else is speaking. With a Half Duplex

Audio Channel, only one party can speak at a time without cutting off the other end.

Full-motion Video: Not compressed. A standard video signal of 30 frames per second,

525 horizontal lines per frame, capable of complete action.

Fully Interactive Audio/Video: Two or more video conferencing sites can interact with

one another via audio and video signals. Two sites may be fully interactive without

necessarily being full-motion sites.

Telecommunications Glossary/36


Gain: An increase in signal power in transmission from one point to another; usually

expressed in decibels.

Gateway: A machine that exists on two networks, such as the Internet and BITNET,

and that can transfer mail between them.

Gateway: A network element (node) that performs conversions between different

coding and transmission formats. The gateway does this by having many types of

commonly used transmission equipment to provide a means for interconnection.

GB – Gigabyte: A unit of data storage size which represents 2^30 (over 1 billion)

characters of information.

Gb – Gigabit: 2^30 bits of information (usually used to express a data transfer rate; as

in, 1 gigabit/second = 1Gbps).

Generational Loss: Reduction in picture quality resulting from copying video signals for

editing and distribution.

Genlock: Ability of a device that handles video signals to synchronize itself to an

external signal, as for overlaying graphics onto the incoming signal.

Geostationary Orbit – Geosynchronous – Clarke Belt: An orbital path approximately

22,300 miles above the earth. This unique satellite orbit has the characteristic that

objects located in it rotate at the same relative speed as the surface of the earth.

Objects placed in this orbit such as communications satellites can be considered fixed

with respect to antennas located on the surface of the earth which are oriented towards

them. Satellites in this orbit are always positioned above the same spot on the earth and

from the earth, they appear fixed in space. Microwave transmission from these earth

located antennas can be sent to the relatively fixed satellites in this orbit which serve as

microwave repeaters back to the surface of the earth. British physicist and science

fiction writer, Sir Arthur C. Clarke, invented satellite communication in his 1954 paper

Wireless World, which explained this east-west orbit, 22,300 miles above the equator;

three satellites based in this orbit could provide world-wide communications.

Get a life: What to say to somebody who has spent too much time in front of a


Ghz – GigaHertz: See Hz – Hertz.

Glass Master: A highly polished glass disc, coated with photoresist and etched by a

laser beam, that is used at the start of the compact disc manufacturing process.

GIF – Graphic Interchange Format: A format developed in the mid-1980s by

CompuServe for use in photo-quality graphics images. Now commonly used

everywhere on-line. The filename extension generally given to GIF files is .gif.

Telecommunications Glossary/37

Glitch: 1. A narrow horizontal bar moving vertically through a television picture. 2. A

short duration pulse moving through the video signal at approximately reference black

level on a wave-form monitor. 3. A random error in a computer program. 4. Any random,

usually short, unexplained malfunction.

GNU – Gnu’s Not Unix: A project of the Free Software Foundation to write a free

version of the Unix operating system.

Gopher and Gopher Server: An Internet information retrieval system. Software

following a simple protocol for tunneling through a TCP/IP Internet, and running errands,

especially the retrieval of “documents.” This information system is technically known as

a Gopher Server and is part of an international network of Gopher Servers. The Gopher

concept was created and initially implemented at the University of Minnesota. The

software they created has migrated around the Internet and is now serving the public at

large. Since its initial conception, many other organizations have contributed software to

this effort.

Graphics: Visual data. This includes photographs, line drawings, computer-generated

artwork, and graphs. Graphics can be entered into the computer using scanners,

drawing programs, cameras, and graphics tablets.

Green Book: The specification for the CD-I standard. See CD-I.

Groupware: Groupware is an interactive collaboration of workers or students via

networked applications on the computer. It provides audio, video conferencing and data

sharing among a group of users using the network at the same time. Examples of

programs/equipment that foster the concept of groupware is CLI’s Cameo, Northern

Telecom’s Visit, and IBM’s Person-to-Person.

GUI – Graphical user interface: The underlying principle of client/server computing is

empowerment of the end-user through the delivery of information services to the

desktop. Services are delivered across the network to a graphical user interface where

data is massaged, merged, and maximized. GUIs are designed to juggle multiple

applications in windows, through icon-driven commands that standardize application

usage and optimize the underlying flow of information across the network.

Telecommunications Glossary/38


H.261: CCITT standard for video compression. It is used to transmit video at rates

between 64 Kilobits per second and T1 speeds. It is also referred to as Px64. Px64

supports intra-coded frames (JPEG-like compression techniques) or “p-frames”

(predictive frames, typical of temporal compression and decompression techniques like

MPEG). Px64 is an evolving multi-dimensional video telephone conferencing standard

that defines compression of audio and motion video images at resolutions of 288 lines

by 360 pixels or 144 lines by 180 pixels. Complying with the CCITT’s recommendation

H.261 Px64 incorporates multiplexing, demultiplexing and framing of multimedia data,

as well as transmission protocol and bandwidth congruence, and call setup and

teardown. Px64 supports intra-coded frames (JPEG-like compression techniques) or “pframes

(predictive frames, typical temporal compression and decompression techniques

like MPEG).

H.323 Series Standard: The H.323 standard provides a foundation for audio, video,

and data communications across IP-based networks, including the Internet. By

complying to H.323, multimedia products and applications from multiple vendors can

interoperate, allowing users to communicate without concern for compatibility. H.323 is

the keystone for LAN-based products for consumer, business, entertainment, and

professional applications. These networks dominate corporate desktops and include

packet-switched TCP/IP and IPX over Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Token Ring network

technologies. . The standard is broad in scope and includes both stand-alone devices

and embedded personal computer technology as well as point-to-point and multipoint

conferences. H.323 is part of a larger series of communications standards that enable

videoconferencing across a range of networks. Known as H.32X, this series includes

H.320 and H.324, which address ISDN and PSTN communications, respectively. H.323

applications include desktop videoconferencing, Internet telephony and video telephony,

collaborative computing, network gaming, business conference calling, distance

learning, support and help desk applications and interactive shopping.

Hacker On the Net: Unlike among the general public, this is not a bad person; it is

simply somebody who enjoys stretching hardware and software to their limits, seeing

just what they can get their computers to do. What many people call hackers,

net.denizens refer to as crackers.

Half-Duplex: A communications channel over which both transmission and reception

are possible but only in one direction at one time; e.g., a two-wire circuit.

Handshake: Two modems trying to connect first do this to agree on how to transfer


Handshaking: Exchange of predetermined signals when a connection is established

between two data-set devices.

Hang: When a modem fails to hang up.

Hard Copy: 1. Any physical document. 2. Computer printout on permanent media such

as paper.

Telecommunications Glossary/39

Hard-Wired: The direct local wiring of a terminal to a computer system.

Hardware: Collectively, electronic circuits, components and associated fitting and

attachments. The physical parts, components and machinery associated with


Hayes Compatible: Describes modems that are compatible because they respond to

the same set of commands as a modem manufactured by Hayes Microcomputer

Products. This has become the standard for microcomputer modems.

HDSL – High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line: A method of providing high-speed data

services over unconditioned copper wires at a top speed of 1.544 mbit/s. VHDSL (for

very high-bit-rate digital subscriber line) is double that at 3 mbit/s. The key advantage of

HDSL and VHDSL is that they allow telcos to provide services like frame relay, SMDS,

and high-quality compressed video over existing telephone lines which is much less

expensive than pulling fiber or installing additional repeaters. VHDSL is based on

carrierless amplitude/phase modulation (CAP) and has applications beyond HDSL and

VHDSL such as a video-on-demand service (being tested by Bell Atlantic) using CAP in

which subscribers can interactively request videos, which are then transmitted over

high-speed lines.

HDTV: Higher (than normal) definition TV. HDTV is generally defined as a system that

offers, as a minimum, certain specific features and characteristics. These are Wide

aspect ratio (now agreed as 19:9 or 1.778:1.; effectively doubled horizontal and vertical

resolution (compared to existing systems); absence of encoding/decoding artifacts

(requires component operation); and compact disc quality stereo sound. The technology

applied to make HDTV transmittable in existing 6 MHz channels is essentially the same

as the technology necessary for multichannel operation in those same channels.

Headend: Electronic control center that receives and re-transmits broadcast TV signals

or original signals to receiving locations in a cable system or satellite network. A system

usually includes antennas, preamplifiers, frequency converters, demodulators,

modulators, processors and other related equipment.

Header: The part of an e-mail message or Usenet posting that contains information

about the message such as who its from, when it was sent, etc.

Helical Recording Format: A recording format in which the tape is unwrapped around a

cylindrical scanning assembly with one or more recording heads.

HFS – Hierarchical File System: Used on the Macintosh platform for directory

structure. The hierarchical directory structure allows a volume to be divided into smaller

units known as directories and, in turn, sub-directories. The hierarchical directory

structure uses a graphical metaphor of folders containing files or additional folders.

Macintosh interface elements, like color icons, are embedded with file structure


High Band: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from 174 to 216 MHz, where

television channels 7 through 13 are located.

Telecommunications Glossary/40

High Sierra Format: The original format proposed by the High Sierra Group for

organizing files and directories on CD-ROM. A revised version of this format was

adopted by the International Standards Organization as ISO 9660.

High Sierra Group: An ad hoc group of CD-ROM researchers and developers who first

gathered at the High Sierra Hotel in Lake Tahoe, CA, to propose a standard CD-ROM

file format. This proposal was later amended and approved as the ISO 9660 standard

for CD-ROM.

Hollywood Syndrome: Tendency to base ones video behavior on a model that

includes a highly polished presentation rather than interaction and the use of fast-paced

visuals for effect rather than substance.

Holy War: Arguments on the Internet that involve certain basic tenets of faith, about

which one cannot disagree without setting one of these off. For example: IBM PCs are

inherently superior to Macintoshes or Macs are inherently superior to IBMs.

Homes Passed: The number of living units (single residential homes, apartments,

condominium units) passed by cable television distribution facilities in a given cable

system service area.

Homogeneous Network: A network of similar host computers such as those of one

model of one manufacturer.

Horizontal Blanking: The blanking signal at the end of each scanning line that permits

the return of the electron beam from the right to the left side of the raster after the

scanning of one line.

Horizontal Resolution: The maximum number of black and white vertical lines that can

be resolved within a horizontal expanse of raster equal to one picture height. NTSC

television pictures normally have 300 lines of resolution or less.

Horizontal Retrace: The return of the electron beam from the right to the left side of the

raster after the scanning of one line.

Host System: A public-access site; provides Internet access to people outside the

research and government community.

Hosts: Computers (not terminals) that process data, act as data sources or destinations

in a communications network.

.hqx: The filename extension used for BinHex files.

HTML – HyperText Markup Language: The language used to mark up text files with

links for use with World Wide Web browsers. This is a file format, based on SGML, for

hypertext documents on the Internet. It is very simple and allows for the embedding of

images, sounds, video streams, form fields and simple text formatting. References to

other objects are embedded using uniform resource locators (URLs).

Telecommunications Glossary/41

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol: The Internet protocol, based on TCP/IP, used to

fetch hypertext objects from remote hosts. See also TCP/IP.

Hub: 1. A signal distribution point for part of an overall system. 2. The master station

through which all communications to, from and between micro terminals must flow.

Hue: The attribute of color perception that determines whether the color is red, yellow,

green, blue, purple, etc.

Hyperband: The band of cable television channels above 300 MHz.

Hypermedia: Software that allows the user to interactively manipulate text, images,

animation, graphics, sounds, digitized voice, and video.

HYTELNET: Stands for HyperTelnet. HYTELNET is essentially a database of Telnet

sites and other Internet resources that can link to other programs when you want to

connect to a site you’ve found. Not as useful as Gopher. A system that provides access

to libraries around the world through the Internet.

Hz – Hertz: Basic measure of frequency with which an electromagnetic wave completes

a full cycle from its positive to its negative pole and back again. Hertz is a unit of

frequency equal to one cycle per second. Normal house current is 60 Hertz (60 cycles

per second).

kHz – Kilohertz: 1,000 Hertz

MHz – Megahertz: 1,000 kHz-one million Hertz

GHz – Gigahertz: 1,000 MHz-one billion Hertz.

Telecommunications Glossary/42


I/O: Input/output.

IAB – Internet Architecture Board: The coordinating committee for Internet design,

engineering and management.

ICN: Iowa Communications Network.

Icon: A pictorial, symbolic representation of a function or task. Used in GUIs (Graphical

User Interfaces) such as Windows and Apple Macintosh Finder. See GUI.

IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force.

IHE – Institution of Higher Education: A postsecondary educational institution college,

university, and other such schools.

IM: Intermodulation distortion occurs when two or more signals are passed through a

nonlinear device such as an amplifier.

IMAP: A new protocol for the storage and retrieval of e-mail. Much like POP – the Post

Office Protocol.

Inbound: The direction of a signal relative to the hub of a local area network (LAN) or

other telecommunications system. Inbound signals would be traveling from originating

points other than the primary hub in the reverse direction to the hub.

Information Agent: A software program (currently only an interface to frequently updated

databases) that can search numerous databases for information that interests you

without your having to know what it is searching. Archie and Veronica are current

examples of information agents.

Infrared: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum just below visible light; infrared

radiation has a wavelength from 800 nm to about 1mm. Fiber-optic transmission is

predominantly in the near-infrared region, about 800 to 1600 nm.

Initialization: The process carried out at the commencement of a program to test that all

indicators and constants are set to prescribed conditions.

Intelsat: The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization operates a

network of satellites for international transmissions. The stated purpose is the design,

development, construction, establishment, maintenance, and operation of the space

segment of the global communications satellite system.

Interactive: Any application that allows the participants at distant locations to

communicate with each other; may indicate two-way video and two-way audio; one-way

video and two-way audio through a normal telephone call placed to the origination site;

asynchronously (not in real time) as through computer conferencing such as an

electronic mail system; or through interaction with a teaching machine such as a

Telecommunications Glossary/43

computer which is programmed to respond to the user with messages on the screen,

voice or other sounds to indicate that an answer is right or wrong.

Interactive Technology: Any technology that permits two-way participation.

Interactive Television: Lets owners of ordinary TVs order movies, home shopping,

mutimedia packages and other digitized products from electronic jukeboxes.

IMHO: Internet shorthand for “In my humble opinion.”

Instructional Design: The methodology used to deliver information in a manner that

achieves learning.

Integrated Circuit – IC: An electronic circuit made by manipulating layers of

semiconductive materials.

Integrated System: A system in which all components including the various types of

amplifiers and taps have been designed from a well-founded overall engineering

concept, to be fully compatible with each other.

Interactive: The active participation of the user in directing the flow of the computer or

video program.

Interactive video: The capability to transmit and receive two-way video transmissions

between two or more sites.

Interactive Cable System: A two-way cable system that has the capability to provide a

subscriber with the ability to enter commands or responses on an in-home terminal and

generate responses or stimuli at a remote location. An example of an interactive system

would be order entry for Pay-Per-View the order information is transmitted upstream on

the cable from the subscriber’s terminal to the headend, processed by a

billing/authorization computer, and authorization to view a specific Pay-Per-View event

is sent downstream to the subscriber’s terminal.

Interactive Multimedia: A multi-level multimedia presentation that allows you to access

information randomly and nonsequentially.

Interconnect: The connection of two or more cable systems. 2. The connection of a

headend to its hubs.

Inter-Exchange Carrier – IXC: Carriers that can carry inter-LATA traffic. Long distance

telephone companies such as AT&T, MCI, and US Sprint.

Interface: The link between two pieces of disparate equipment, such as a CPU and a

peripheral device. Also, a method of translating data from computer to user. For

Internet, the user interface is difficult for the uninitiated to use. Software programs have

been written which change the look of the screen by provide pull-down menus, buttons,

hierarchical files folders or hypertext to use and move around the Internet. Software

program names include Mosaic, Lynx, Internet in a Box and GINA.

Telecommunications Glossary/44

Interference: A scrambling of the content of signals by the reception of desired signals.

Interlaced Video: Process of scanning video frames in two passes, with each pass

painting every other line of the frame onto the screen. NTSC’s 525-line frame scans in

two fields of 262.5 lines each that take 1/60 second to paint; a frame takes 1/30 second

to paint. Noninterlaced video scans complete video frames in one pass usually

producing a higher image quality.

Interleave: A method of storing information in an alternating sequence of frames.

International Telecommunication Union – ITU: Organization composed of the

telecommunications administrations of the participating nations. Focus is the

maintenance and extension of international cooperation for improving

telecommunications development and applications.

Internet: A worldwide system for linking smaller computer networks together –

governmental institutions, military branches, educational institutions, and commercial

companies. Networks connected through the Internet use a particular set of

communications standards to communicate, known as TCP/IP. Internet is the name

given to the overall connectivity of all its various sub-networks, including USENET,

APRAnet, CSnet, BITNET, etc. There is no surcharge to send or receive messages

through Internet. Only ASCII messages up to 50,000 characters can be sent through

this system. With a lowercase “i”, an internet is a group of connected networks.

InterSLIP: A free program provided to the Macintosh Internet community by InterCon

Systems. In conjunction with MacTP, InterSLIP enables users with modem and a SLIP

account to use excellent software like Fetch and TurboGopher.

Intranet: Intranets differ from the Internet because they are private networks, set off

from the rest of the world by firewalls. They can often connect disparate corporate

networks. They often access corporate resources and databases that were built with

non-Internet technology in mind.

IP – Internet Protocol: The main protocol used on the Internet.

IRC – Internet Relay Chat: A service where users can “talk” via typing to people around

the world.

Iridium: Motorola’s $3 billion worldwide direct cellular project which will enable users to

have one worldwide number. This will be accomplished by a system of low earth

orbiting satellites (LEOs).

ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network: A set of standards provide a common

architecture for the development and deployment of digitally integrated communications

services. A set of standardized customer interfaces and signaling protocols for

delivering digital circuit-switched voice/data and packet-switched data services. ISDN is

designed to provide standard interfaces to custom premises equipment such as

computers, telephones, and facsimile machines through basic rate interface (BRI) to

PBXs, host computers, and LANs through primary rate interface (PRI); to the pubic

Telecommunications Glossary/45

switched network through SS7; and to local packet data terminals and the public

packet-switched network through X.25 and X.75/X.75′ packet services. The key to ISDN

is out-of-band signaling which permits the users’ equipment and the network to

exchange control and signaling information over a separate channel from that which

carries user information. A digital telecommunications channel that allows integrated

transmission of voice, video and data. ISDN lines used to access network services are

divided into bearer, or “B” channels, and a supervisory, or “D” channel, for out-of-band

signaling. B Channels carry digitally encoded customer information such as voice and

data traffic, while the D channel provides the information required to set up, route and

disconnect calls on B Channels. D channels can also carry other information such as

caller identification. Twenty-three B channels and one D channel form a Primary Rate

Interface or “23B+D”. PRI B channels can be used for any combination of voice, data,

and image transmission at 64 kpbs. In addition, B channels can be grouped together to

create wider bandwidths for applications like video transmission.

ISO: International Standards Organization.

ISO 9660: The international standard for directory structures and file layout on CDROMs,

a logical, structural standard compared to the physical standards for

manufacturing called the “Yellow Book.” This standard specifies, for single sessions,

exactly how information is stored on a CD-ROM to be accessible in any CD-ROM drive

running on a variety of common operating systems.

ISOC – Internet Society: ISOC is a membership organization that supports the Internet

and is the governing body to which IAB reports.

ITFS Antenna System – Instructional Television Fixed Service: Local (up to 25-mile

radius) one-way, over-the-air block of TV channels operating at microwave (very high)

frequencies reserved for educational purposes; can be received only by TV installations

equipped with a converter to change signals back to those used by a TV set. One-way

audio and full motion video. The antenna may be omnidirectional or shaped to cover a

specific geographic area. In rare instances the ITFS antenna system can be found to be

very directional for special repeater applications or to serve a series of co-linear receive

sites. The ITFS television transmission system was first authorized in 1963 by the FCC

for educational television in the 2.5 to 2.686 GHz band. The ITFS band has

subsequently been re-allocated for shared operation among multipoint distribution

services, multichannel multipoint distribution services, operational fixed services, and

ITFS users.

IVDS – Interactive Video and Data Services: Name for license which will be granted

by the FCC to devices called Interactive TV Appliances (ITAs). ITAs include TVAnswer,

a two-way television service for consumers for game shows, sporting events and

respond instantly to news polls and interactive advertising as well as participate in

distance learning. The system will also let viewers shop, bank, pay bills, organize TV

programming and order a pizza.

IVR: The IVR unit answers the call, greets the caller, and guides the caller through

possible responses with a series of voice prompts. The desired information is provided

via prerecorded voice fragments (words) or computer-generated speech.

Telecommunications Glossary/46


Jack: A connecting device to which a wire or wires of a circuit may be attached and

which is arranged for the insertion of a plug.

JANET – Joint Academic Network: JANET is Great Britain’s national network. JANET

addresses work backwards from normal Internet addresses (largest domain to the

smallest). Mot gateways to JANET perform the necessary translations automatically.

Janus disc: A CD-ROM that contains data tracks in two or more different formats, such

as ISO 9660 and HFS (Macintosh Hierarchical File Structure).

Java: Java is similar to the C++ computer language that is already used by many

programmers, and it is object-oriented so that new applications can be built from preexisting

components. It is a compiled language, so that after it is written, it must be run

through a compiler to allow computers to understand it. But – only one compiled version

is created which can run on many different platforms (where other languages require a

different version for each platform). Java can be used to tap into and “mine” databases

or create interactive multimedia applications. A common use of Java is to create a news

ticker broadcasting the latest news that people can click on to get more details.

Java Applet: A program written in Java to run within a Java-compatible web browser,

such as HotJava or Netscape Navigator.

Java Platform: The Java Virtual Machine and the Java core classes make up the Java

Platform. The Java Platform provides a uniform programming interface to a 100 percent

pure Java program regardless of the underlying operating system. When implemented

on a particular operating system, the Java Platform is said to be Java Compatible if it

passes the Java Compatibility Kit suite of tests

JPEG – Joint Photographic Expert Group: JPEG is an industry standard for stillimage

compression that is moving into full-motion video. Storing the video signal is a

problem as it takes a 300 megabyte hard disk to store just 10 seconds of digital video.

Compression is the answer to storage problems. JPEG is a compression technique

based upon intraframe encoding technology. It allows full restoration of symmetrically

compressed images. Symmetrical compression means that the image takes an equally

long time to be compressed as it does to be decompressed. An asymmetrical scheme

takes longer to compress an image than to decompress it and typically compresses the

image on a computer other than the one to be used for decompression. Relying on a

newly adopted format to encode and decode digital images based on independent, nontemporal

(intraframe) data, JPEG typically divides an image into 8 by 8 pixel blocks.

These 64 square pixel matrices, called a “search range,” enable the aggregate

quantization of the image and color data store by the pixels within each of the blocks.

Advanced JPEG algorithms that use larger search ranges, up to as much as 32 by 32

pixels, called “super blocks,” enable significantly faster encoding and decoding (up to 40

to 1 compression at about 4MB per second) but demand exponentially more processing

power to maintain the same degree of image quality as the smaller pixel block.

Originally, JPEG was intended to compress only still images. However, video is nothing

more than a quick presentation of successive still images. Thus, a form of JPEG, known

Telecommunications Glossary/47

commonly as motion JPEG, is being used to compress motion images, particularly in

applications like video editing where it is necessary to access individual frames of video

and to scrub forward and backwards through source material. JPEG, MPEG and Px64

specifications use a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), an encoding algorithm that

quantifies the human eye’s ability to detect color and image distortion. DCT parses color

content data thereby enabling the use of a higher pixel depth sampling rate (typically 24

or 32 bits) than non-DCT compression techniques. JPEG typically controls 24 bits per

RGB pixel, retaining a high quantization of luminance and color resolution.

JPEG System Highlights: Used to encode still images. It compresses about 20 to 1

ratio before visible image degradation occurs. Compression ratios exceeding 100 to 1

attainable but image degrades excessively. At very low compression ratios of 5 to 1

maximum JPEG maintains absolute resolution. It excludes audio compression.

Symmetrical (compresses at same rate as it decompresses,) uses the same hardware

to encode and decode. It compresses redundant data occurring within each frame

(intraframe). Compresses comparatively slow, depending on computer speed, about 1

to 3 seconds for a 1 MByte image. Decompresses a full sized image in .5 to 1 second or

reduced sized image in real time. It has good quality at maximum compression.

Jukebox: CD-ROM drive with a disc changing mechanism, capable of playing multiple


Telecommunications Glossary/48


Ka-Band: A satellite transmission in the 20 and 30 gigahertz frequency spectrum.

Kbps, kb/s – Kilobits per Second: A unit of measure of data of 1,000 bits per second or

1,000 Baud.

Kermit: A file transfer protocol named after Kermit the Frog. Kermit is generally slower


Kerning: Reducing the horizontal space between characters of type. Originally, casting

a letter so that part of it (e.g., the top of the f) extends beyond the body of the letter, into

the space occupied by the next letter. Sometimes used to mean adding or removing

space between letters.

Keyboard: An alphanumeric, input/output, peripheral device used to communicate with

a computer.

Killfile: A file that lets you filter Usenet postings to some extent, by excluding messages

on certain topics or from certain people.

Kilobaud: The measure of data transmission speed a thousand bits per second.

Kilobyte: A unit of measurement equal to 1024 bytes.

Kine Recording: The technique of converting a video image to motion picture film.

Knowbot: Short for knowledge robot. Embedded machine intelligence capable of

automatically and regularly searching for new information on parameters set by the

user. At its extreme, the knowbot becomes an intelligent partner in mediating human

communication. Sometimes called an agent.

Knowledge Navigator: An information agent popularized by an Apple video about

working with computers in the future.

Ku Band: A category of satellite transmissions higher in frequency than those used as

“c band” which are being transmitted from satellites placed in the geostationary orbit.

The group of microwave frequencies from 12 to 18 GHz and the band of satellite

downlink frequencies from 11.7 to 12.2 GHz. The higher frequencies (12 GHz versus 4

GHz) have created the possibility of smaller receive antennas and the realization of

direct broadcast satellite (DBS) signals to the end user without the necessity of going

through a cable television system or other shared use receive site due to the factors of

size and cost.

Telecommunications Glossary/49


LAN – Local Area Network: Private transmission network interconnecting offices within

a building or group of buildings and usually designed to convey traffic; e.g., voice, data,

facsimile, video. Usually associated now with a computer network made up of

computers, printers, and mass storage units. MAN Metropolitan area network. WAN –

Wide Area Network.

Large-Scale Integration – LSI: The process of engraving many thousands of electrical

circuits on a small chip of silicon.

Laser – Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: 1. A device for

generating coherent electromagnetic signals (e.g., light). Low powered lasers are

frequently used to transmit light signals into optical fibers. 2. Laser light contains waves

that have the same phase, as opposed to conventional light, whose individual wave

phases are unrelated to the phases of the others.

LATA: Local access and transport area of a telephone company.

Lavaliere: A small microphone that can be clipped onto clothing or suspended from

neck cords and worn in front of the chest.

LCD – Liquid Crystal Display: A method of creating alphanumeric displays by

reflecting light on a special crystalline substance. Frequently used in electronic games

and watches, and in portable electronic instruments.

LEA – Local Educational Agency: (a) a public board of education or other public

authority legally constituted within a state for either administrative control of, or direction

of, or to perform service functions for, public elementary or secondary schools in a city,

county, township, school district, or other political subdivisions of a State; or such

combination of school districts or counties a State recognizes as an administrative

agency for its public elementary or secondary schools; (b) any other public institution or

agency that has administrative control and direction of a public elementary or secondary

school; (c) as used in vocational education programs the term also includes any other

public institution or agency that has administrative control and direction of a vocational

education program.

Leading (pronounced “ledding”): Vertical space between lines of type, measured in

points. In metal type, leading is the additional space (from inserting strips of lead

between lines of metal type). In phototype and digital type, where there is no metal body

determining the height of the type, leading has come to mean the total space from one

line to the next, usually measured from baseline to baseline.

Learning Styles: A learner’s learning style is as individual as a fingerprint. We all learn

differently. The Canfield Learning Style instrument identifies styles in iconic, direct

experience, listening, qualitative, numeric, and other modes. The student-centered

approach to learning styles is to have the facilitator adapt his/her style to that which will

meet the student’s learning style. Since even a small class will present varied learning

Telecommunications Glossary/50

styles, it is best to prepare materials that use a variety of technology delivery methods

so that the needs of all learners are met.

Leased Lines: A term used to describe the leased or rented use of dedicated lines from

point to point. Lines could include fiber optic cables, telephone cables, microwave or

other transmission systems.

LEC: Local exchange carrier of a telephone company.

LED – Light Emitting Diode: A semiconductor which emits light when a proper voltage

is applied to its terminals.

Light Pen: A pen-like device that contains a photosensitive cell and small aperture lens

that produces or detects electronic signals; can be used to write free-hand directly on a

TV screen or to enter, edit and position computer text or graphics.

Linear: Video technology designed to be played from beginning to end without stops.

Links: Communication pathways between nodes.

Lip Sync: Synchronization of the sound portion with the visual portion of a television


LISTSERV: A powerful program for automating mailing lists.

LNA – Low Noise Amplifier: Located at the antenna. Refers to electronic equipment,

used in conjunction with satellite reception, intended to amplify extremely weak satellite

signals without introduction of noise. They are rated in different noise temperatures,

expressed in degrees Kelvin. The lower the noise temperature figure, the higher the

carrier-to-noise ratio, and the better the picture.

Local Exchange Carrier (LEC): Carriers that can carry only intra-LATA traffic. Local

telephone companies such as US West, Contel, Centel etc.

Local Loop: The local loop gets the signal from the receive site to the viewing room.

Microwave, fiber optics, cable and sometimes broadcast are used to distribute the

signal. Also referred to as the “Last Mile”.

Location – Remote: Production shooting site other than a studio.

Log On/Log In: Connect to a host system or public-access site.

Log Off: Disconnect from a host system.

Low Band: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from 54 to 88 MHz, where

television channels 2-6 are located.

Low Earth Orbiting Satellite – LEO: Low earth orbit satellites which require 77 small,

smart satellites to provide linkage around the world. The satellites move overhead in

Telecommunications Glossary/51

their low orbit. Motorola’s Iridium (from the element Iridium which has 77 electrons) uses

the concept to provide, digital, satellite-based personal communications via small, handheld

transportable receivers. With the system, voice, fax, or data calls can be made or

received anywhere. The user will have one universal telephone number for the phone.

Local gateways will store customer billing information, keep track of user locations, and

interconnect with terrestrial carriers worldwide. The dual-mode phone will access

customers’ regular cellular service first, switching to Iridium only when there is no

terrestrial signal, to assure least-cost routing. The system is planned to be launched in

1994 with service by the end of 1996. Inmarsat’s Project 21 will provide similar services.

LPTV – Low Power Television: Broadcast medium that is similar to commercial TV but

limited in broadcast coverage area by its low power signal. Can air one class per time

frame which can be received at multiple sites.

Lumen: Unit of light flux.

Luminance: 1. Luminous flux emitted, rejected, or transmitted per unit of solid angle

per projected area of the source. 2. The photometric equivalent of brightness. 3. The

brightness part of a television picture.

Luminance Signal: That portion of the television signal which conveys the luminance

or brightness information.

Lurk – Lurkers – Lurking: People who read messages in a Usenet newsgroup or other

public system without ever responding or contributing to the topic.

Lux: Unit of n equal to 1 lumen per square meter or approximately 0.1 candle power.

Telecommunications Glossary/52


MacBinary: A file format that combines the three parts of a Macintosh file; the data fork,

the resource fork, and the Finder information block. No other computers understand the

normal Macintosh file format, but they can transmit the MacBinary format without losing

data. When you download a binary Macintosh file from another computer using the

MacBinary format, your communications program automatically reassemble the file into

a normal Macintosh file.

Machine Language: Binary code that can be directly executed by the processor, as

opposed to assembly or high-level language.

MacTCP: A Control Panel from Apple that implements TCP on the Macintosh. MacTCP

is required to use programs such as Fetch and TurboGopher.

Magnetic Media: Any medium on which data is stored as variations in magnetic

polarity. Usually floppy disks, hard disks, and tape.

Magnetic Tape: A mylar tape, coated with magnetic particles, on which audio, video or

data can be stored.

Mailing List: Essentially a conference in which messages are delivered right to your

mailbox, instead of to a Usenet newsgroup. You get on these by sending a message to

a specific e- mail address, which is often that of a computer that automates the process.

Magneto-optical: An information storage medium that is magnetically-sensitive only at

high temperatures. A laser heats a small spot, which allows a magnet to change its

polarity. The medium is stable at normal temperatures. Magneto-optical discs can be

erased and re-recorded.

Master: The original video tape, audio tape or film of a finished product. Usually stored

in a vault or area protected from the environment. Dubs are made from the master.

Once the master is worn out, it can not be replicated.

Master Antenna Television System – MATV: An antenna and distribution system

which serves multiple dwelling complexes such as motels, hotels, and apartments. It is,

in effect, a miniature cable system.

Mastering Facility: A manufacturing plant where compact disc “masters” are created

for the mass production or replication of the actual compact discs. Metal Master: A

metal disc created by plating an etched glass master disc with nickel. Used in a

mastering facility to create metal stampers for the mass production of compact discs.

MATV – Master Antenna Television: Centrally-located receiving system that

distributes off-air signals and to multiple places in the cable transmission system.

Master Control: Nerve center for telecasts. Controls the program input, switching, and

retrieval for on-the-air telecasts. Also oversees technical quality of programs.

Telecommunications Glossary/53

Matte: The keying of two scenes; the electronic laying in of a background image behind

a foreground scene, such as a picture of a town meeting behind the newscaster

reporting on the meeting.

Matte Key: Keyed (electronically cut-in) title whose letters are filled with shades of gray

or a specific color.

MBONE – Multicast Backbone: Internet. An outgrowth of the first two IETF “audiocast”

experiments in which live audio and video were multicast from the IETF meeting site to

destinations around the world. The idea is to construct a semi-permanent IP multicast

testbed to carry the IETF transmissions and support continued experimentation

between meetings. The MBONE is a virtual network. It is layered on top of portions of

the physical Internet to support routing of IP multicast packets since that function has

not yet been integrated into many production routers. The network is composed of

islands that can directly support IP multicast, such as multicast LANs like Ethernet,

linked by virtual point-to-point links called “tunnels”. The tunnel endpoints are typically

workstation-class machines having operating system support for IP multicast and

running the “mrouted” multicast routing daemon.

mbps, MB/s – Megabits per Second: A unit of measure of data of 1,000,000 bits per

second or 1,000,000 Baud.

MCC – Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation: An industry

consortium that developed the MacWAIS software.

MCU – Multipoint Control Unit: MCU’s have the ability to support multipoint

videoconferences on codecs of the same brand and (in most cases) model.

MDS: Pay television delivery service relayed by microwave to small dish antennas.

Mean Time Between Failure – MTBF: A statistical quantitative value for the time

between episodes of equipment or component failure.

Medium (Media): Any material substance(s) that can be used for the propagation of

signals. Examples are copper, air, water, and fiber optics.

Meet-Me Bridge – Meet-Me Teleconferencing: A type of telephone bridge that can be

accessed directly by calling a certain access number; provides dial-in teleconferencing.

The term “meet-me bridging” refers to the use of this type of bridge.

Mega: 1. Ten to the sixth power, 1,000,000 in decimal notation. 2. When referring to

storage capacity, two to the twentieth power, 1,048,576 in decimal notation.

Megabyte: A unit of measurement equal to 1024 x 1024 bytes, or 1024 kilobytes; 8

million bits.

MegaHertz – MHz: One million cycles per second.

Telecommunications Glossary/54

Memory: Computer’s information storage capability. RAM – random access memory;

ROM – read only memory.

Menu: A list of symbols and functions that can be selected on a computer system.

Microcomputer: A relatively precise term for computers whose central processing units

(CPUs) are microprocessor chips. By contrast, mainframes and most minicomputers

have CPUs containing large circuitry. Microcomputers include personal computers,

small business computers, desktop computers, and home computers.

Microfiche: A system of storing and retrieving information microforms, consisting of film

in the form of separate sheets, that contain original text, pictures, data, or anything

which has been reduced to micro- images for a greater storage efficiency and arranged

in a grid pattern for location of those original images by means of Cartesian coordinates.

Microfilm: A system of storing and retrieving information microforms, consisting of film

as a data medium, usually in the form of a roll or strip, that contains micro-images of the

original information. The images are generally in a sequential arrangement rather than

in rows or columns as on microfiche.

Microprocessor: The heart of the computer. This is a silicon chip with the computer’s

central processing unit implemented on the chip.

Microsecond: One millionth of a second.

Microsoft Windows: A GUI (graphic user interface) operating environment developed

by Microsoft for use on PCs running under the MS-DOS operating system.

Microwave: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 1,000

Megahertz to 100,000 Megahertz. The microwave energy is capable of being focused in

concentrated beams in specific directions due to its short wavelength characteristics

and sent over long distances. Point-to-point transmission system that transmit signals

through the air using transmitters and antennas attached to tall towers. Provides

program audio and video plus the capacity for additional voice and data material. It is

also capable of being transmitted over wide areas from a central point or shaped into

specific coverage areas with special antennas (ITFS). Extreme examples of long

distance focused microwave transmissions are the signals sent from a satellite uplink

earth station to a satellite 22,300 miles above the earth and from that satellite back to


MHz – Megahertz: Refers to a frequency equal to one million Hertz, or cycles per


Midband: The band of cable television channels A through I, lying between 120 and

174 MHz.

MIDI – Musical Instrument Digital Interface: 1. An industry-standard connection for

computer control of musical instruments and devices. 2. Musical Instrument Digital

Telecommunications Glossary/55

Interface. Industry standard for exchange of musical information between computers

and musical instruments or music synthesizers.

Midsplit System: A cable-based communications system that enables signals to travel

in two direction, forward and reverse simultaneously with upstream (reverse)

transmission from 5 MHz to about 100 MHz and downstream (forward) transmission

greater than about 150 MHz. Exact crossover frequencies vary from manufacturer to


MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions: A new Internet standard for

transferring non-textual data, such as audio messages or pictures, via e-mail.

Minicomputer: An intermediate range computer, between full-size mainframes and 16-

bit microcomputers. Historically, minicomputers have served dedicated uses, such as in

scientific and laboratory work.

MIS: Management Information System.

Mixed Mode Disc: A CD-ROM that contains both CD-ROM (Yellow Book) and CDAudio(

Red Book) tracks.

MNP: Microcom Networking Protocol.

Model: 1. A representation in mathematical terms of a process, device, or concept. 2.

An academic model; a program with a certain set of procedures or elements which can

be duplicated by others in their institutions.

Modem – MOdulator/DEModulator: Device that connects computer terminals and

hosts through analog links by converting data signals to analog signals and back again.

Transmission rate of 300 Baud is slow; 2400 is faster.

Modem-Encryption Devices: By placing encryption units at modem interfaces, some

systems have all data on the link encrypted and decrypted in a manner that is

transparent to the sending and receiving stations.

Modular: Constructed with standardized units or dimensions for flexibility and variety in

use; allows for easy replacement, substitution, expansion or reconfiguration of modules

or sub-assemblies.

Modulator: A device which converts the video signal and audio signal onto a viewable

TV channel. It takes the video and audio signals that are separated by the receiver and

combines them into a signal that can be received by an ordinary TV set. This signal is

called an “RF” signal, meaning radio frequency, and is usually set for either channel 3

or 4. The advantage of using a modulator is that it permits the use of standard TV

receivers for displays, but the signal quality is not as good as using a direct video and

audio feed to a monitor TV display. As with receivers, modulators should also be


Telecommunications Glossary/56

Monitor: A television monitor is capable of projecting from an attached device such as

a video tape recorder or camera; or from a cable such as that connected by cable

companies or the cable from the satellite receiving unit. It is not equipped with receiver

electronics which enable it to receive local broadcast channels. Studio monitors are

usually high resolution so that the best possible picture is seen.

Mosaic: A free graphical front end to the Internet that supports browsing of multimedia

data that includes plain and formatted text, picture, video and sound. The data is based

on the hypertext document format where text or pictures can act as links to other places

in the same or different documents. Mosaic provides a simple graphical user interface

(GUI) that enables easy access to the data stored on the Internet. These data may be

simple files or hypertext documents. The document a user points to on the receiving

desktop could be on the same machine or on another computer elsewhere on the

Internet. Mosaic clients are currently available for Windows, Macintosh, the X Window

System and many flavors of UNIX. Mosaic was developed by the NationalCenter for

Supercomputing (NCSA).

MOTSS – Members of the Same Sex: Originally an acronym used in the 1980 federal


MPC – Multimedia Personal Computer: A standard which describes a PC that can run

Microsoft’s Windows efficiently because the system software beneath multimedia would

be “Windows with Multimedia Extension.” The specification calls for added audio and

CD-ROM hardware. MPC is a registered trademark of the MPC Marketing Council.

MPEG – Moving Pictures Experts Group: Multimedia compression standard for

professional and consumer applications – digital video, digital audio and systems

compression. MPEG compression compresses similar frames of video, tracks elements

which change between frames and discards the redundant information. This allows fullmotion

video to be sent at CD-ROM data rates – around 160kbps. MPEG, which is now

being called MPEG1 in some circles achieves increased compression through the use

of a combination of interframe and intraframe (sometimes called MPEG 1-Frame) image

and audio compression algorithms, including predictive and interpolated technologies.

These techniques analyze the degree of motion present in a search range and predict

the “temporal redundancy” (anticipated repetitive motion) occurring between adjacent

frames. As in JPEG, pixel search blocks form the basis of the representative sampling


MPEG differs from motion JPEG (sometimes called “frame-rate” or motion JPEG). For

frame rate JPEG to achieve the same data rates as MPEG, it must resort to bandwidth

reduction strategies, such as chroma subsampling, reducing data rates either through

an averaging of color information, or through decimation, which discards alternate lines

or pixels of image information. The compression ratios obtainable with MPEG, which

can be as high as 200 to 1 with decimation and chroma sampling, are directly

dependent on the amount of data redundancy present in a given image. MPEG is

designed to deliver data in the 1 to 2mbps range making it suitable for replaying full

motion video stored on CD-ROMs.

Telecommunications Glossary/57

MPEG2, which is still under development, will define a compression and decompression

technology suitable for delivering data at a 5 MB to 10 MB-per-second rate. It is

envisioned as a data delivery system capable of delivering high-quality, high data

content capacity images to computers and television.

MPEG3 is projected to deliver data at a stunning (by today’s standards) 60 mbps

making it suitable for complex saturated color data signals, including HDTV. MPEG3 is

several years away from finalization.

MPEG System Highlights: Used to encode motion images. Will deliver decompressed

data in the 1.2 to 1.5 mbps range enabling CD-ROM to play back full motion color

motion images at 30 frames/second. Compresses about 50 to 1 ratio before image

degradation occurs. Compression ratios are as high as 200 to 1 attainable but with

observable degradation, including audio compression. Asymmetrical (compresses

slower than it decompresses), uses different hardware or techniques to encode and

decode. Compresses redundant data appearing in sequential frames (temporal,

interframe). Compression rate is fast. Decompresses in real time. Fair quality at

maximum compression.

MUD/MUSH/MOO/MUCK/DUM/MUSE: These are multi-user, text based, virtual reality

games. A MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) is a computer program which users can log into

and explore. Each user takes control of a computerized

persona/avatar/incarnation/character. You can walk around, chat with other characters,

explore dangerous monster-infested areas, solve puzzles, and even create your very

own rooms, descriptions and items. There are an astounding number of variations on

the MUD theme.

Multiple System Operator – MSO: An organization that operates more than one cable

television system.

Multi-Link Audio: Any application allowing viewers to be connected by phone (usually

by audio bridge) to the spot where the broadcast originates.

Multimedia: The combination of multiple digitized data types; text, sound, computergenerated

graphics and animations, photographs and video. The merger of digital

technologies based on the use of computers. The technologies that are converging are

computing, television, printing and telecommunications.

Multimedia Extensions: Adds audio and video recording and playback capabilities to

Microsoft Windows. Part of the MPC standard.

Multisession: A drive that has the ability to read a CD-ROM on which data was

recorded in at least two different recording sessions, or a disc that contains data

recorded at different times.

Multiple Access: The ability of more than one user to use a transponder. Transponders

have three basic resources frequency, time and space. The frequency domain is used

in FDMA. Time domain multiple access is used in TDMA by time-sharing the

Telecommunications Glossary/58

transponder. Space domain multiple access makes use of either the polarization

discrimination, orthogonal digital codes or through spread-spectrum techniques.

Multiple Audio Subcarrier Tuning: Essential to take advantage of radio and data

services riding piggy-back on video signals. Also, some programming may use

nonstandard (6.8 and 6.2 MHz) frequencies.

Multiplexor – MUX: Device that uses one of several techniques to combine multiple

analog or digital signals onto a single path.

Multiplexing: Transmission of two or more information streams over a single physical

medium at the same time such that each data source has its own channel. Allows a

number of simultaneous transmissions over a single circuit. Common methods are

frequency division multiplexing (FDM) where the frequency bands are split to constitute

a distinct channel and time division multiplexing (TDM) where the common channel is

allotted to several different information channels, one at a time.

Multiprocessor: A computer employing two or more processing units under integrated


Multitasking: Pertaining to the concurrent execution of two or more tasks by a


Telecommunications Glossary/59


N + 1: Created by the FCC, this formula forms the basis by which the FCC regulates

expansion of channel capacity for non-broadcast use. The FCC requires that if the

government, education, public access, and leased channels are in use at least 80

percent of the Monday-through-Friday period for at least 80 percent of the time during

any three-hour period for six consecutive weeks, then within six months the system’s

channel capacity must be expanded by the operator.

Nanosecond – nsec: One billionth of a second.

Narrowband: A telecommunications medium that carries lower frequency signals;

includes telephone frequencies of about 3,000 Hertz and radio subcarrier signals of

about 15,000 Hertz.

Narrowcast: Transmission of programs to a specifically defined audience normally

using the newer technology delivery systems. Sometimes referred to as a target

audience, a limited audience, or a “narrow” audience, hence the name “narrowcast.”

National Cable Television Association – NCTA: Washington, D.C. based trade

association for the cable television industry; members are cable television system

operators; associate members include cable hardware and program suppliers and

distributors, law and brokerage firms, and financial institutions. NCTA represents the

cable television industry before state and federal policy makers and legislators.

Net: The Net-sanctioned way to refer to the Internet for the initiated.

Net Computers – NC: Small computers with enough memory to navigate the Internet

and download content. The Net Computers were created to close the educational gap

between children in prosperous and low-income schools – usually called the haves and

have-nots. Net computers will work in schools, homes, small business and other sites.

Net.god: One who has been on-line since the beginning, who knows all and who has

done it all.

Net.personality: Somebody sufficiently opinionated/flaky/with plenty of time on his/her

hands to regularly post in dozens of different Usenet newsgroups, whose presence is

known to thousands of people.

Net.police: Derogatory term for those who would impose their standards on other users

of the Internet. Often used in vigorous flame wars (in which it occasionally mutates to


Netiquette: A set of common-sense guidelines for not annoying others.

Network: 1. Two or more information sources or destinations (points or nodes) linked

via communications media to exchange information. 2. It can be as simple as a cable

strung between two computers a few feet apart or as complex as hundreds of

Telecommunications Glossary/60

thousands of computers around the world linked through fiber optic cables, phone lines

and satellites.

Network Architecture: A set of design principles, including the organization of

functions and the description of data formats and procedures, used as the basis for

design and implementation of a user- application network.

Network Interface Card: Also known as NIC. Add-in circuit board that allows a PC to

be connected to a local area network (LAN).

Network License: A license from a software vendor that allows an application to be

shared by many users over a network.

Newbie: Someone who is new to the Internet. Sometimes used derogatorily by

Net.veterans who have forgotten that, they, too, were once newbies who did not

innately know the answer to everything. “Clueless newbie” is always derogatory.

Newsgroup: A Usenet conference.

Newsreader: A program to read news and providing capabilities for following or

deleting threads.

NFS – Network File System: A network service that lets a program running on one

computer use data stored on a different computer on the same Internet as if it were on

its own disk.

NIC – Network Information Center: An organization which provides network users with

information about services provided by the network. As close as an Internet- style

network gets to a hub; it’s usually where you’ll find information about that particular


NII – National Information Infrastructure, Data Highway, Information Highway: An

interoperable linking of all networks for business, government, education and consumer

uses. Much of the highway already exists in phone lines, coaxial cable, satellites, and

cellular networks, and already functions as the Internet. The difference between the

Internet and the future NII is primarily based on more bandwidth, faster operating

systems, intelligence in data routing, security for all services which are conveyed

through audio, data, and video modes.

NNTP – Net News Transport Protocol: A transmission protocol for the transfer of

Usenet news.

NOC – Network Operations Center: An organization that is responsible for maintaining

a network.

Node: An addressable unit in a network, which can be a computer, work station or

some type of communications control unit.

Noise – Audio: Unwanted sounds (static) that interfere with the intended sounds; or

unwanted sound signals.

Telecommunications Glossary/61

Noise Temperature: The amount of thermal noise present in a system, expressed in

degrees Kelvin. The lower the noise temperature, the better.

Noise – Video: Unwanted electronic interference that shows up as snow.

Non-Composite Video Signal: A signal which contains only the picture signal and the

blanking pulses.

NOS: Network operating system.

NREN – National Research and Education Network: Created by an act of Congress,

this new network – still in interim stages – is replacing Internet as the national e-mail

system connecting research, governmental, and high education networks and data

bases. There is concern among some educators that K-12 will not have easy or

immediate access to NREN as it’s implemented.

NSA line eater: The more aware/paranoid Net users believe that the National Security

Agency has a super-powerful computer assigned to reading everything posted on the

Net. They will “jokingly” refer to this line eater in their postings. Goes back to the early

days of the Net when the bottom lines of messages would sometimes disappear for no

apparent reason.

NSF – National Science Foundation: Funds the NSFNet, a high-speed network that

once formed the backbone of the Internet in the US.

NTSC: National Television System Committee; defined the 52 5-line color video signal

frequency spectrum which extends from 30 Hz to 4.2 MHz. NTSC video consists of 525

interlaced lines, with a horizontal scanning rate of 15,734 Hz, and a vertical (field) rate

of 59.94 Hz. A color subcarrier at 3.579545 MHz contains color hue (phase) and

saturation (amplitude) information. 30-frame-per-second color TV standard in use in

U.S., Canada, Mexico, Japan and a few other countries.

Telecommunications Glossary/62


OEM: Original equipment manufacturer.

Off-Line: Mode of operation in which terminals, or other equipment, can operate while

disconnected from a central processor. Contrast with “on-line” where there is a direct

connection to a host computer.

Off-Premises System: Refers to a teleconferencing room or equipment located outside

of a user organization’s facility; e.g., a video teleconferencing room operated by a

vendor and available to the public for a fee.

On-Demand Bandwidth: Dialable digital bandwidth access using the public switched

telephone network instead of dedicated facilities.

On-line: When a computer is connected to an on-line service, bulletin-board system or

public-access site, it is on-line.

Operating System: A computer program that runs the computer and handles data

traffic between the disks and memory.

One-Way Video, Two-Way Audio: People at originating location can be seen and

heard by participants at other locations. The people at the originating location can hear,

but cannot see participants at other locations. With two-way video, each group can see

and hear other groups. Usually limited to point- to-point.

Open Systems Interconnect – OSI: Generally open systems and networks are based

on standards and the OSI model, providing applications and data portability, providing

interoperability between systems, having common user interfaces, providing

transparency below the application level, and provided by multiple sources, with multiple

sources having input on development.

Optical Character Recognition – OCR: The machine identification of printed

characters through use of light-sensitive devices; often used as a method of entering


Optical Fiber: An extremely thin, flexible thread of pure glass able to carry one

thousand times the information possible with traditional copper wire. See Fiber Optics.

Orange Book: Colloquial name of the standard that describes CD-Recordable

equipment, media and formats. An extension of the “Yellow Book” standard which

includes specifications for incremental writes or multiple sessions. It specifies standards

for CD-R and magneto-optical cartridge systems as well as Kodak’s Photo CD. Most

CD-ROM drives today can only read “single session” discs or the first session of a

multisession disc.

Origination Site: The location from which video and/or audio is transmitted and

uplinked in a teleconference. Other sites participating are receive sites.

Telecommunications Glossary/63

OSI: Open Systems Interconnection.

OS/2: IBM operating system.

Outbound: Direction of a signal relative to the hub of a local area network (LAN) or

other telecommunications system. Outbound signals would be traveling away from the

primary hub in the forward direction to the extremities of the system.

Telecommunications Glossary/64


PABX – Private Automatic Branch Exchange: A private automatic telephone

exchange, usually located at the user’s site, that routes and interfaces the local

business telephones and data circuits to and from the public telephone network.

Packet: The unit of data sent across a packet switching network. The term is used

loosely. While some Internet literature uses it to refer specifically to data sent across a

physical network, other literature views the Internet as a packet switching network and

describes IP datagrams as packets.

Packet Switching: A communications data transmission method that breaks down

messages into smaller units of standard sized pieces called packets, which are

individually addressed and routed through a network; the network link is occupied only

during packet transmission. Packet switching increases efficiency in transport.

PAL: Phase Alternation by Line, the 625-line, 25-frame-per-second TV standard used in

Western Europe, India, China, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, and parts of Africa.

Brazil uses PAL-M, a 525-line variant.

PamAmSat: International satellite operator.

Parabolic Dish: A satellite antenna, usually bowl-shaped, that concentrates signals to a

single focal point. See reflector.

Parallel Input/Output: Inputting data to or outputting data from, storage in whole

information elements, e.g., a word rather than a bit at a time. Typically, each bit of a

word has its own wire for data transmission, so that all of the bits of a word can be

transmitted simultaneously.

Parity Check: A check of the accuracy of data being transmitted. To accomplish this,

an extra parity bit is added to a group of bits so that the number of ones in the group is,

according to the specification, even or odd. Then, at the receiving end, the bits in the

word are added, the parity bit needed for that total is determined, and the total is then

compared with the parity bit transmitted.

Path Table: One of two tables contained in the volume descriptor of a CD-ROM, which

comprise the file management system for the disc. The path table contains the names

of all directories on the disc, and is the fastest way to access a directory that is not close

to the root directory.

Pay-per-society: The idea that the pay-per-view video concept will work for all areas of

an information society. Many on-line services already charge by the minute or have

monthly rates.

Pay-Per-View – PPV: Usage-based fee structure used sometimes in cable television

programming in which the user is charged a price for individual programs requested.

Peripheral: Device such as a communications terminal that is external to the system


Telecommunications Glossary/65

PBX – Private Branch Exchange: A private telephone exchange that serves a

particular organization and has connections to the public telephone network; refers to a

multi-line telephone exchange terminal with various features for voice and data


PC: Personal computer, microcomputer.

PCM – Pulse Code Modulation: A method of converting analog sound into digital

representation by use of successive samples.

PDA – Personal Digital Assistant: Small, hand-held devices that combine computer

power with graphics, sound, video and communication capabilities. They will take

several forms including electronic note takers and portable display telephone. They hold

various programs, address files and databases depending on the user’s needs. Many

feature a modem, fax, radio mail and computer.

PDIAL List: List of public providers that offer full Internet access.

Phase: A fraction, expressed in degrees, of one complete cycle of a wave form or orbit.

Photonics: Gallium arsenide integrated circuits for optical interconnections within and

between computer and communication equipment called GaA. Present fiber optic

computer and communication links are limited by discrete component electronics. In

development is a projected 32-channel parallel monolithic IC connector which could

vastly increase performance and drive down costs to open up long- sought new fiber

optic markets which can replace current copper-wired connections.

Picture Element: One of many monochrome or color “dots” that comprise a television

picture (also called pixel or pel).

Picture Signal: That portion of the composite video signal which lies above the

blanking level and contains the picture brightness information.

Picture Tube: The television cathode-ray tube used to reproduce and display an image

created by variations of intensity of the electron beam which scans the coated surface

on the tube interior.

Ping: A program that can trace the route a message takes from your site to another


Pixel: The smallest controllable (addressable) picture element that can be illuminated

on a display screen or printed page. Closely related to resolution.

.plan file: A file that lists anything one wants others on the Net to know about the

person. It is placed in the home directory at the public-access site. Then, anybody who

fingers (see) you, will see this file.

Telecommunications Glossary/66

Platform: Refers to different computer types or operating environments; e.g.,

Macintosh, DOS/Windows, CD-I and Sega are different platforms.

Point of Presence – POP: The point where the inter-exchange carrier’s responsibilities

for the line begin and the local exchange carrier’s responsibility ends. Location of a

communications carrier’s switching or terminal equipment.

Point-to-Multipoint: A teleconference broadcast from one location to several receiving

locations (also known as downlink sites.)

Point-to-Point: Teleconference between two locations. Point-to-Multipoint – one

location to many sites.

Polarization: A characteristic of the electric field on an electromagnetic wave in space.

The directional aspects of a signal. Signals can have circular or planar polarization.

Four types of polarization are used with satellites; horizontal, vertical, right-hand circular

and left-hand circular. Electromagnetic waves have the ability to vibrate in different

radial directions. Typically, satellite signal polarization is either horizontal or vertical. The

signal coming from the satellite to the dish will either be vibrating along a horizontal or

vertical plane. The receiving equipment must be adjusted to receive the correct


Polycarbonate: Material from which compact discs are made.

POP – Post Office Protocol: A protocol for the storage and retrieval of e-mail. Eudora

uses POP.

Port: In software, the act of converting code so that a program runs on more than one

type of computer. In networking, a number that identifies a specific “channel” used by

network services. For instance, Gopher generally uses port 70 but is occasionally set to

use other ports on various machines.

Portable Transmitter: A transmitter so constructed that it may be moved about

conveniently from place to place but not ordinarily used while in motion, although some

portable communications equipment does provide the capability to used while in motion.

Post: To compose a message for a Usenet newsgroup and then send it out for others

to see.

Post-Production: For a program which is not a live broadcast, all the footage would be

shot with the talent on a set constructed for the purpose or in remote locations. After the

shooting, the post-production begins. The tape is electronically edited on video editing

equipment. Music and graphics might be added. When the editing is finished, the

program is complete. It then might be sold as a training video, situation comedy, drama,

etc. Most commercial productions are produced this way, even though it might appear

to be a live broadcast.

Postmaster: The person to contact at a particular site to ask for information about the

site or complain about one of his/her user’s behavior.

Telecommunications Glossary/67

PostScript: A page-description language, developed by Adobe Systems, that converts

any computer image – whether text or graphics – to a form that compatible output

devices can interpret and print. PostScript typefaces can be printed on any PostScript

compatible printer.

POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service.

PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol: PPP provides a method for transmitting datagrams

over serial point-to-point links.

pps: Packets per second.

Pre-Production: The first phase of a videoconference. Pre-production includes

planning, research, script writing, developing taped segments to be dropped into a live

production, hiring and rehearsing talent, and anything else done up to minute the

broadcast begins.

Pre-Produced Segments: Video segments done prior to the day of the

broadcast/production. These are videotaped and edited segments which will be shown

during the broadcast to take the audience into the field for interviews, demonstrations,

or on site visits to places that somehow embody the content. For example, in a program

about environmental pollution, a pre-produced segment might show a polluted stream

with beer cans and dead fish. It might show the source of the pollution such as chemical

or sewage processing plants.

Premastering: The process of logically formatting an authored application and

database. A working application or database converted to a standardized format such

as ISO 9660 ready for writing to a final compact disc.

Press-to-Talk Microphone: Microphone that is activated by pressing a bar or button.

Prestel: The British Post Offices public viewdata service.

PRI – Primary rate interface: PRI is a CCITT-defined ISDN trunking technology that

delivers 64 kbps clear channels and standardized out-of-band signaling. PRI can serve

customer premise equipment (CPE) such as a PBX, LAN gateway, or host computer or

can serve as a trunk interface between central offices.

Prime Focus: Type of feed in a parabolic dish antenna which is positioned above the

dish as the antennas focal point.

Printed Circuit (PC) Board: A circuit board whose electrical connections are made

through conductive material that is contained on the board itself, rather than with

individual wires.

Printer Font: The software that contains the image of a typeface in outline form; used

by a laser printer or imagesetter to produce the image on paper or film. Also called

outline font.

Telecommunications Glossary/68

Screen Font: The software that contains the bitmapped images of a particular

typeface, at various sizes; used to produce an approximation of the typeface on

the screen. Also, a particular size of bitmapped image of a typeface. Also called

a bitmap font.

Type Manager: A software program (e.g. Adobe Type Manager, Bitstream

FaceLift) that generates images of a typeface for the screen or a printer, based

on the typeface’s printer font.

Program Day/Date/Local Time: Broadcast times are usually listed in Eastern Standard

Time or Eastern Daylight Time depending upon the time of the year. Remember to

convert this to the local time.

Programming Language: An artificial language, established for expressing computer

programs, which uses a set of characters and rules whose meanings are assigned prior

to use.

Projection Television: A combination of lenses and/or mirrors that project an enlarged

television picture on a screen.

PROM – Programmable read-only memory: A type of read-only memory that can be

programmed by the computer user. This programming usually requires special


Prompt: 1. Any symbol or message presented to an operator by an operating system,

indicating a condition of readiness, location, or that particular information is needed

before a program can proceed. 2. When the host system asks you to do something and

waits for you to respond. For example, if you see “login:” it means type your user name.

PRO-Que Channel: PRO is a term used primarily in television transmissions to

designate a separate audio voice grade signal sent with a television channel which is

used for program instructions and queuing for the broadcast engineers. The voice

quality 3 kHz channel may contain audio or data as may most be appropriate for the

specific application. It is not received by a standard television receiver without special


Protocol: A set of rules and procedures for establishing and controlling conversations

on a line. The set of messages has specific formats for exchanging communications

and assuring end-to-end data integrity of links, circuits, messages, sessions and

application processes. Usually associated with communications over computer. It is the

language that computers use when talking to each other. The method used to transfer a

file between a host system and your computer. A formal description of message formats

and the rules two computers must follow to exchange those messages. There are

several types, such as Kermit, YMODEM and ZMODEM. Protocols can describe lowlevel

details of machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g., the order in which bits and bytes

are sent across a wire) or high-level exchanges between allocation programs (e.g., the

way in which two programs transfer a file across the Internet).

Telecommunications Glossary/69

Proprietary: A device or program designed and owned by a particular manufacturer or

vendor, as opposed to a standard. CD-ROM drives are manufactured to read discs that

comply with the Yellow Book standard, but their controller cards may be either supplied

by the manufacturer (proprietary) or based on the Small Computer Systems Interface


PTT – Post, Telephone & Telegraph Administration: Refers to operating agencies

directly or indirectly controlled by government in charge of telecommunications services

in most countries of the world.

Power user: A computer user who is quite skilled in the use of computers over a variety

of applications.

Public Access Channel: A cable television channel specifically designated as a

noncommercial public access channel available on a first-come, non-discriminatory


Public Access Provider: An organization that provides Internet access for individuals

or other organizations, often for a fee.

Public Switched Network: Any switching system that provides a circuit switched to

many customers.

Pulse Code Modulation: A time division modulation technique in which analog signals

are sampled and quantized at periodic intervals. The values observed are typically

represented by a coded arrangement of 8 bits of which one may be for parity.

Push Technologies: “Push” is the automatic delivery of content, data or software to a

desktop receiver or server receiver. Here’s the problem that push technologies solve.

You post new content on your Web site but there’s no guarantee that anyone will care

or even look for it. A related problem is tailoring interesting content so that it is easily

located. Libraries and stores have the ability to display materials for people in their

store. How did they get them to come in. Web sites have the same problem. A solution

for both cases is push publishing where you send a message to your audience

(students, employees, faculty, administrators) when you decide it is ready for

distribution. A teacher might send a news article related to content to his students; ask

them to read it and carry on a discussion about it in the Internet classroom. Distance

learning administrators might send the new catalog directly to the student, or even a

registration form for the next class in a sequence of classes. Using push publishing, it’s

possible to deliver to niche audiences and thus personalize the delivery to them. Instead

of only marking a document as “new” on the Web page and waiting for someone to

show up, an abstract of the document could be sent to the user. This is a broadcast

model for the web and still one-way unless you provide a method for interaction as well

as a reason. Just “pushing” documents into student’s mailboxes is another form of junkmail

unless it involves them in the process of learning.

Telecommunications Glossary/70


QuickTime: Apple’s multimedia extension to its System 7 operating software for the

Macintosh. It is a time-based management system for combining text, graphics, sound,

still images, animations and video. The software incorporates its own compression

technology so that digitized movies can be stored and played off of a computer hard


Telecommunications Glossary/71


Rain Attenuation – Rain Losses: The attenuation (loss) of a signal due to rainfall. If

you are receiving a teleconference on a Ku band dish, local rainstorms can drastically

weaken the signal strength of the program. The result will be sparkles which interfere

with the ability to see the program. During a heavy downpour or thunderstorm, signal

reception may be lost temporarily. The noise temperature perceived by the receiving

antenna may increase due to rain being present in the link.

RAM: Random-access memory. A volatile memory used by a computer’s central

processing unit as a chalkboard for writing and reading information. RAM is measured

in multiples of 4096 bytes (4K bytes), and serves as a rough measurement of a

computer’s capacity.

Raster: The scanned (illuminated) area of a television picture tube.

RBOC: Regional Bell operating company.

README files: Files found on FTP sites that explain what is in a given FTP directory or

which provide other useful information (such as how to use FTP).

Real Soon Now: A vague term used on the Net to describe when something will

actually happen.

Receivers: Convert satellite signals into channels viewed (one at a time) on a TV

monitor; designed to tune-in the format, bandwidth, and audio sub-carrier. Programs

broadcast in code (encryption) are decoded at receive sites.

Basic Receivers: Lowest cost; limited (or manual) channel tuning capability; may

use fixed antennas.

Multi-Format Receivers: Most versatile; adjusts for all broadcast formats; receive

any satellite video program in six or more bandwidth selections, and two agile

audio subcarrier switches; usually a motorized systems.

Receiver – TV: Has receiver electronics which enable it to receive local broadcast

signals. A monitor may not be equipped with receive equipment.

Receiver – Satellite: Electronic unit capable of receiving video and audio signals

from satellites, usually from only one satellite at a time.

Receive Site: The site receiving the transmission from the origination site. A video

teleconference might have 100 or more receive sites.

Red Book: The specification for Compact Disc-Digital Audio.

Retrieval Engine: A program which finds and presents data. Same as search engine.

Telecommunications Glossary/72

Redundant: A backup satellite receive system which would go into operation if the

primary system failed. Although the reliability of all electronics has greatly improved, it is

desirable to have backup equipment in the receive chain; i.e., a duplicate of each item

except the dish. Dual LNA’s or BDCs can be mounted on dual feedhorns and could

easily be switched in the event of primary system failure. Likewise, two receivers could

be operated simultaneously using signal splitters, and either could be switched to the

viewing room.

Reflector: Antenna’s main curved “dish,” which collects and focus signals onto the

secondary reflector or the feed.

Repeater: A term used to describe the process of reprocessing and send a weak signal

on to a more distant service area. The weak signal condition develops as the initially

strong signal passes through the miles of air, moisture, rain and snow which gradually

attenuates or reduces its power level.

Resolution: A measure of picture resolving capabilities of a television system

determined primarily by bandwidth, scan rates and aspect ratio. Relates to fineness of

details perceived.

Retrace: The return of a scanning beam to a desired position.

Retrofitting: The installation of additional – equipment or the rebuilding of sections of a

system after it has been installed.

RF – Radio Frequency: Radio frequencies are generally considered as any

electromagnetic signal from normal radio to microwave transmission.

RFC – Request for Comments: The Internet’s Request for Comments documents

series. The RFCs are working notes of the Internet research and development

community. A document in this series may be on essentially any topic related to

computer communication, and may be anything from a meeting report to the

specification of a standard.

RFD – Request for Discussion: The part of the newsgroup creation process where you

propose a group and discussion starts.

RFI: Radio frequency interference.

RFP: Request for proposal.

RGB – Red, Green Blue: Method of transmitting video signals that feeds red, green,

and blue channels over separate wires; provides highest-quality video signal and is the

format for most computer equipment.

Ring Network: A local area network in which devices are connected in a closed loop or

ring as opposed to a bus network.

Telecommunications Glossary/73

Rlogin: Lets you log into other computers on the Internet as though you were

connected to them directly. “rsh” is a junior version of rlogin.

ROM: Read only memory. A type of permanent, non-erasable memory that plugs

directly into the wiring of a computer, and contains computer programs. Some

computers are supplied with some built-in ROM, whereas others have external slots for

inserting ROM cartridges.

ROTFL – Rolling on the Floor Laughing: How to respond to a particularly funny

comment on the Net.

ROT13: A simple way to encode bad jokes or movie reviews that give away the ending,

etc. Essentially, each letter in a message is replaced by the letter 13 spaces away from

it in the alphabet. There are on-line decoders to read these; nn and rn have them built


Routing: Selecting the minimum delay path (and/or minimum cost path) in a network for

a message or packet to reach its destination.

RS-232-C: Standard interface between a piece of equipment and a telephone circuit.

RS-250B: The technical standards established for the determination of a true broadcast

quality signal. All technical parameters for each type of measurable signal degradation

are at a level approximately ten times that first detectable as visible in a television

picture by the average viewed.

RTM – Read the manual: Often used in flames against people who ask computerrelated

questions that could be easily answered with a few minutes with a manual.

Often RTFM.

Telecommunications Glossary/74


S/N – S/NR – Signal to Noise Ratio: Final relationship between the video or audio

signal level to the noise level. Ratio of the signal power to the noise power in a specified

band width, expressed in dBW.

Sampling Rate/Frequency: The number of samples taken per second of an analog

signal, expressed in Hertz. A 44.1KHz sampling rate, used for CD-Audio sound,

represents 44,100 samples per second.

SAP – Supplementary Audio Program: SAP is used to designate that part of the audio

signal transmitted with the standard multi-channel sound television broadcast. The

multi-channel audio signal contains stereo (left and right), SAP and PRO. The SAP

signal is most often used in television broadcast applications for a second language.

SCA – Subsidiary Communication Authorization: Radio version of vertical blanking

intervals (BVI). Public institutions that have access to FM have access to SCA. This

electronic technique places the radio signal on the FM spectrum; these signals can only

be picked up with special tuners that distinguish the SCA from the FM signals.

Satellite: An electronics retransmission device serving as repeater normally placed in

orbit around the earth in the geostationary orbit for the purpose of receiving and

retransmitting electromagnetic signals. It normally receives signals from a single source

and retransmits them over a wide geographic area. Satellite C/Ku band Domestic

communications satellites operate on two frequency ranges designated C and Ku band.

Each require specific electronic equipment. C band is less expensive; operates at 4

kHz. Ku-band operates at 12 kHz. Some teleconferences are broadcast on both bands.

Many satellites are now built with both C and Ku band capacity.

Satellite Earth Terminal: That portion of a satellite link which receives, processes and

transmits communications between Earth and a satellite.

Satellite Footprint: In geostationary orbit, communications satellites have direct line-ofsight

to almost half the earth – a large “footprint” which is a major advantage. A signal

sent via satellite can be transmitted simultaneously to every U.S. city. Multiple

downlinks can be aimed at one satellite and receive the same program; called point to


Satellite Master Antenna Television System – SMATV: A system wherein one central

antenna is used to receive signals (broadcast or satellite) and deliver them to a

concentrated grouping of television sets (such as might be found in apartments, hotels,

hospitals, etc.).

Satellite Receiver: A microwave receiver capable of receiving satellite transmitted

signals, downconverting, and demodulating those signals, and providing a baseband

output (e.g., video and audio). Modern receivers are frequency agile and usually

capable of multiple band reception (e.g., C band and Ku band.)

Telecommunications Glossary/75

Satellite Relay: An active or passive satellite repeater that relays signals between two

earth stations.

Satellite System: The use of orbiting satellites to relay transmissions from one satellite

dish to another or multiple dishes.

Fixed Position System: Low cost systems limited to reception from one satellite

and one band. Motorized System Receives programs on different satellites by

adjusting the dish position. Automated Systems Microprocessor controlled for

instant movement to satellites (positions stored in memory).

Scalability: The ability to vary the information content of a program by changing the

amount of data that is stored, transmitted or displayed. In a video image, this translates

into creating larger or smaller windows of video on screens.

Scan-Converter: A device that converts video frequency signals to audio frequencies

and vice versa; used in freeze-frame video to transmit video signals over telephone


Scanner: A device for digitizing text, drawings or photographs – anything in paper form.

It works like a photocopy machine, but instead of paper, the scanner converts the

printed information into digital images. Scanners are used with OCR (optical character

recognition) technology, which takes the scanned pages of text and graphs and

converts them into the individual letters and words that make up the text and the dots

that make up the image, so that the text and images can be edited using a computer.

Scanning: The process of breaking down an image into a series of elements or groups

of elements representing light values and transmitting this information in time sequence.

SCPC – Single Channel Per Carrier: Signal transmission technique often used in

satellite transmission which concentrates one channel of information on a single

transmitted carrier for relay through the satellite. The channel may be digital, analog or

multiplexed analog in nature provided that its information may be sent on a single

narrow band carrier. The Single Channel Per Carrier transmission technique allows

multi-channel operation in the satellite with access from any location on the earth.

SCPT: Single carrier per transponder.

Scramble: To interfere with an electronic signal or to rearrange its various component

parts. In pay television, for example, the signal might be scrambled, and a decoder, also

called a descrambler, might be necessary for the signal to be unscrambled so that only

authorized subscribers would receive the clear signal.

Scrambler: A device that transposes or inverts signals or otherwise encodes a

message at the transmitter to make it unintelligible to a receiver not equipped with an

appropriate descrambling device. Synonymous with encoder.

Screen Capture: A part of communications software that opens a file on the computer

and saves to it whatever scrolls past on the screen while connected to a host system.

Telecommunications Glossary/76

SCSI – Small Computer System Interface: Pronounced “scuzzy.” A standard interface

used to connect peripheral devices, such as a CD-ROM drive, to a computer.

Screen Density: The maximum number of accessible screen elements in a video


Scrolling: A property of most alphanumeric video display terminals. If the screen of

such a video terminal is filled, it will move the entire display image upward, either at a

smooth pace or one line at a time, so that room is continuously made at the bottom of

the screen for new information.

.sea: Self-extracting Archive: A compressed file or files encapsulated in a

decompression program; needs no other program to expand the archive.

SEA – State Educational Agency: The state board of education or other agency officer

primarily responsible for the supervision of public elementary and secondary schools in

a state. In the absence of this officer or agency, it is an officer or agency designated by

the governor or state law.

Search Engine: A program which finds and presents data. Same as retrieval engine.

SECAM: Systeme Electronique pour Couleur Avec Memoire, the 625-line, 25-frameper-

second color television -system used in France, Eastern Europe, USSR and parts of


Sector: A physical data block of a CD-ROM.

Seek: In CD-ROM drives, the act of locating requested data on a disc.

Seek Time: Usually expressed in terms of “average seek time,” it provides a

comparative number indicating the time required to get from one position to another, in

reading a CD-ROM. Some older CD-ROM drives had seek times in excess of 1,000

milliseconds (ms), or one full second. The newest drives have seek times approaching


Selective Addressability – Selectively Addressable Scrambling: The capacity to

designate selected receivers to descramble a particular signal. Each decoder has a

unique “address.” First developed as the pay-per-view option for cable TV, then

adopted by satellite networks.

Server: A computer that can distribute information or files automatically in response to

specifically worded e-mail requests.

Servo: In CD-ROM drives, an electro-mechanical device that uses feedback to achieve

precise starts and stops for movements of the optical head and focusing of the laser


Telecommunications Glossary/77

Semiconductor: A material whose resistivity lies between that of conductors and

insulators, e.g., germanium and silicon. Solid state devices such as transistors, diodes,

photocells, and integrated circuits are manufactured from semiconductor materials.

Semiconductor Memory: Computer memory using solid state devices instead of

mechanical, magnetic, or optical devices.

Serial Input/Output: Data transmission in which the bits are sent one by one over a

single wire.

Shareware: Software that is freely available on the Internet. If you like and use the

software, you should send in the fee requested by the author, whose name and address

will be found in a file distributed with the software.

Shared Visual Space: Allows participants to interact with a common graphics display

area; e.g., any person can make a change which is seen by all.

.sig file: Sometimes, .signature file. A file that, when placed in your home directory on

your public-access site, will automatically be appended to every Usenet posting you


.sig quote: A profound/witty/quizzical/whatever quote that you include in your .sig file.

Sign-On Procedure: The process of connecting with a remote computer, including the

provision of identification details and security access.

Signal-to-Noise: The amount of useful information to be found in a given ratio

Silicon Chip: A wafer of silicon providing a semiconductor base for a number of

electrical circuits.

SIMM – Single In-line Memory Module: Devices used to add memory to computers.

Simplex: A circuit capable of transmission in one direction only. Contrast with half

duplex and full duplex.

SIMTEL20: The WhiteSandsMissileRange used to maintain a giant collection of free

and low-cost software of all kinds, which was “mirrored” to numerous other ftp sites on

the Net. In the fall of 1993, the Air Force decided it had better things to do than maintain

a free software library and shut it down. But you’ll still see references to the collection,

known as SIMTEL20, around the Net.

Simulation: Simulation programs electronically substitute media for the actual

experience, but may be coupled with hands-on devices that help the learner to

experience physical movement.

Single Session: A drive that can read discs on which data was recorded only once, or

a CD-ROM on which data was recorded in one pass, either through CD-Recordable

technology, or the standard mastering process.

Telecommunications Glossary/78

Site: The origination site is the location from which video and/or audio is transmitted

and uplinked in a teleconference. Receive transmission from the origination site.

Skew: The angular deviation of recorded binary characters from a line perpendicular to

the reference edge of a data medium.

Skewing: Horizontal displacement of video information in bands of approximately 16

lines per field producing a sawtooth effect which is most apparent on vertical picture

detail of a television picture originating from the playback of a video tape recording.

SLIP – Serial Line Internet Protocol: SLIP is currently a de facto standard, commonly

used for point-to-point serial connections running TCP/IP. It is not an Internet standard

but is defined in RFC 1055.

Slow Scan: Uses transmitters that scan selected frames and transmit the visual

information over telephone lines to receive sites where it is reconstituted as a still

picture. May refer to still frame video that accepts an image from a camera or other

video source one line at a time.

SMATV: Satellite master antenna television. A distribution system that feeds satellite

signals to a hotel, motel, apartment complex, etc.

SMDS – Switched Multimegabit Data Service: A public network service that will

enable customers to send packets between LANs at either T-1 or T-3 rates. Switched

Multimegabit Data Service is offered by public network providers and is a

connectionless (i.e., datagram) service. It will enable customers to exchange packets

between sites at T1, T3 at potentially higher rates. This LAN-like service will be offered

by local exchange carriers and will initially be available only within selected metropolitan

areas. A typical SMDA customer will have a wide-area communications device – i.e., a

router – connected to a campus LAN or backbone, which interface through a subscriber

line to the local telco central office. The communication between the customer premises

device (e.g., the router) and the telco will adhere to a protocol called Subscriber

Interface Protocol (SIP). This protocol has three levels, only two of which are

standardized Levels 1 and 2 are fashioned from the IEEE 802.6 MAC standard for

metropolitan area networking, which is called the Distributed Queued Dual Bus (DQDB)

protocol. The third layer was promulgated by Bellcore in one of its Technical Advisories.

The SMDS service will support both T1 and T3 access from the user’s router to the local

exchange carrier’s central office. SMDS is considered by the regional Bell operating

companies (RBOCs) to be their first broadband service, and it will eventually be

incorporate as a service offering for Broadband ISDN (BISDN) family of services in the

late 1990s.

Smiley: A way to describe emotion on-line. Look at this with your head tilted to the left

:-). There are scores of these smileys, from grumpy to quizzical.

🙂 smile

🙂 also a smile

😀 laughing

Telecommunications Glossary/79

:-} grin

:-] smirk

🙁 frown

😉 wink

😎 wide-eyed

:-X close mouthed

😮 oh, no!

SMPTE Time Code: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers’ system of

giving each frame of video a number to allow indexing and precise tape control. EBU

time code is the European Broadcast Union version of SMPTE time code.

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: The Internet standard protocol for transferring

electronic mail messages from one computer to another. SMTP specifies how two mail

systems interact and the format of control messages they exchange to transfer mail.

SNA: System network architecture.

Snail Mail: Mail that comes through a slot in your front door or a box mounted outside

your house.

SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol The Internet’s standard for remote

monitoring and management of hosts, routers and other nodes and devices on a

network (RFC 1157).

Snow/Ice on the Satellite Dish: A significant build up of snow (4-5 inches) on the dish

can interfere with signal reception. Snow can be removed with a soft broom or soft

cloth. Since accurate curvature of the dish is vital to a good signal, avoid banging or

hitting the dish. Ladders should not be leaned against the dish as it may warp or change

the azimuth and/or elevation setting. A small amount of ice should not cause problems.

Software: A set of programs, procedures or related documentation associated with a

system; materials for use with audio visual equipment; programs in contrast to


Solar Outage: If an antenna is pointed at or near the sun, the sun’s high radiated noise

level may be many times stronger than the desired signal.

Solid State: A class of electronic components utilizing the electronic or magnetic

properties of semiconductors.

SONET – Synchronous Optical Network: Will offer dedicated point-to-point lines via

fiber, with bandwidths ranging from 51.84 mbps to over 2gbps. SONET defines optical

interfaces for high speed digital transmission – ranging from 51.84 mbps to more than 2

gbps in multiples of 51.84 mbps. The purpose of the SONET standard is to guarantee

that fiber, and fiber terminating equipment (e.g. digital loop carrier systems) from

different central office vendors, can all interface with each other. While many trials are

currently under way to test the SONET central office standards, all new fiber

deployment is expected to be compliant with this standard.

Telecommunications Glossary/80

After the SONET CO standards are proven, carriers will begin providing SONETcompatible

equipment to customers; the roll out of SONET circuits to customers will

begin in 1993. With SONET, customers will be able to order “pipes” running at speeds

higher than T3. SONET will be the transmission platform for other high-speed (above T3

speeds) services, such as SMDS and BISDN. SONET will be a major breakthrough for

carriers, because standardization will significantly lower their equipment and operational

costs, which, in turn, should result in lower cost for private networking.

Sound board: A device required by a DOS-based computer to access digital sound,

exists in the form of an add-in board inserted in the computer, and accesses (and/or

creates) .WAV, .SND, MIDI and other digital sound formats.

Special Event Teleconferencing: Teleconference that uses facilities that are

temporarily linked for a specific event; implies a temporary satellite network for one-way

video and two-way audio.

Specialized Common Carrier: 1. A company authorized by a government agency to

provide a limited range of telecommunications services. Examples of specialized

common carriers are the value- added networks. fi2. Those common carriers not

covered in the original federal communications legislation.

Spectrum: Range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in transmission of voice,

data, and TV.

Spin Up: Come up to speed. When a CD-ROM is inserted in a drive, it must reach a

certain rate of rotational speed in order to be read.

SS7 – Signaling System 7: Increases both the efficiency of the telcos’ interoffice

trunking facilities and their opportunities for revenue generation by enabling networkwide

services. With SS7 trunk signaling, premium services such as ISDN and Custom

Local Area Signaling Service can be easily and efficiently extended across the network.

SSMA – Spread Spectrum Multiple Access: Frequency modulation technique.

Standard Broadcast Band: The band of frequencies extending from 535 to 1605 kHz,

usually called AM.

Star Network: A network configuration in which there is only one path between a

central or controlling node and each end-point node.

Station: Assigned satellite location.

Stereophonic: Giving, relating to, or constituting a three-dimensional effect of auditory

perspective, by means of two or more separate signal paths.

Still-Image Video: System by which still images are transmitted over standard

telephone lines, usually allowing for real-time interaction between locations.

STL – Studio Transmitter Link: Description of a type of microwave link which connects

a television studio to the television station transmitter location. The designation is used

Telecommunications Glossary/81

by the Federal Communications Commission to differentiate a specific band of

frequencies allocated for this specific application.

Studio: A specially designed room with associated control and monitoring facilities used

by a broadcaster for the origination of radio or television programs.

Subcarrier: Signal which is transmitted along with the main video signal carrier.

Subcarriers can transmit data, color picture information or audio.

Subscription Television – STV: The broadcast version of pay television. Not a cable

service, it is distributed as an over-the-air broadcast signal. Its signals are scrambled

and can be decoded only by a special device attached to the television set for a fee.

STV contains no commercials.

Superband: The band of cable television channels J through W lying between 216 and

300 MHz.

Supercomputers: The fastest and most powerful computing systems that are available

at any given time.

Surfing the Internet: Skimming across topics on the Internet – moving in and out of

systems looking for information that is not specified. More like browsing than a true

search. Also net surfing.

Switch: Mechanical or solid-state device that opens or closes circuits, changes

operating parameters or selects paths for circuits on a space or time division basis.

Switched Circuit: A circuit that may be temporarily established at the request of one or

more stations.

Switched Network: Any network in which switching is present and is used to direct

messages from the sender to the ultimate recipient. Usually switching is accomplished

by disconnecting and reconnecting lines in different configurations in order to set up a

continuous pathway between the sender and the recipient.

Switched System: A communications system (such as a telephone system) in which

arbitrary pairs or sets of terminals can be connected together by means of switched

communications lines.

Symmetrical Compression: A compression system that requires equal processing

capability for compression and decompression of an image. Used in applications where

both compression and decompression will be utilized frequently. Examples include stillimage

databasing, still-image transmission (color fax), video production, video mail,

videophones and videoconferencing. Asymmetrical Compression requires more

processing capability to compress an image than to decompress an image. It is typically

used for the mass distribution of programs on media such as CD-ROM.

Synchronous Communication: Communication which takes place in the same time

frame. Examples are live teleconferences which must be viewed when they are

Telecommunications Glossary/82

broadcast. If the teleconference is taped and viewed later, it becomes asynchronous

communication – communication which takes place at the convenience of the end user

through the technology of video tape recording.

Synchronous Transmission: Data characters and bits are transmitted at a fixed rate

with the transmitter and receiver synchronized. This eliminates the need for start-stop

elements, thus providing greater efficiency.

Syntax Error: A mistake in the formulation of an instruction to a computer.

Sysadmin: The system administrator; the person who runs a host system or publicaccess


Sysop – A System Operator: Somebody who runs a bulletin board system or network;

responsible for keeping the network or BBS working properly.

Telecommunications Glossary/83


T1 (DS-1) Channel: High-speed digital data channel/carrier with a bit rate of 1.544

mbps which requires a bandwidth of approximately 2.1616 MHz to transmit in a

television type cable environment. (1.4 x 1.544 = 2.1616); a general term for a digital

carrier (DS-1. available for high-volume voice or data traffic; often used for compressed

video teleconferencing networks. Each T1 circuit can accommodate 24 voice channels.

A video codec operating at the T1 rate uses the equivalent of 24 voice channels. A

codec operating at 56 or 64 Kbps is operating in the range of one voice channel. A

standard video signal digitized at 90 Mbps has approximately 1400 voice channels. The

compressed video signal quality and the cost decreases as the transmission speed


T.129 Series Standards: The T.120 standard contains a series of communication and

application protocols and services that provide support for real-time, multipoint data

communications. These multipoint facilities are important building blocks for a range of

collaborative applications, including desktop data conferencing, multi-user applications,

and multi-player gaming. Through it data is seamlessly delivered to multiple parties in

“realtime.” It allows endpoint applications from multiple vendors to interoperate. It

specifies how applications may interoperate with (or through) a variety of network

bridging products and services that support the T.120 standard. It is completely free

from any platform dependencies including OS/2, MAC/OS, several versions of UNIX,

and other proprietary real-time operating systems. The T.120 standard supports a broad

range of transport options, including the Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN or

POTS), Integrated Switched Digital Networks (ISDN), Packet Switched Digital Networks

(PSDN), Circuit Switched Digital Networks (CSDN), and popular local area network

protocols (such as TCP/IP and IPX via reference protocol). These network transports

operate at different speeds, but can easily co-exist in the same multipoint conference.

T.120 was designed to work alone or with in the larger context of other ITU standards

such as the H.321x family of video conferencing standards and V.series modems.

T3 (DS-3.: A carrier of 45 mbps bandwidth; one T3 channel can carry 28 T1 channels.

Used for point-to-point digital video transmissions or for major PBX-PBX

interconnection. Dedicated service delivered via fiber. The price for a T3 circuit can be

comparable to seven to 12 T1 circuits. In addition to being offered by the traditional local

and interexchange carriers, a number of alternative access carriers offer T3 circuits in

major metropolitan areas.

Talk-back Circuit: An audio return link from a receive location to the originating

video/audio point. The equipment used is generally either a leased telephone line,

dedicated radio link, or special microwave equipment made for this service.

TANSTAAFL: Internet shorthand for “There Ain’t No Such Thing as a Free Lunch.”

.tar: The filename extension used by files made into an archive by the Unix tar program.

TBC – Time Base Corrector: An electronic accessory to a videotape recorder that

helps make mixed format playback or transfers electronically stable. It helps maintain

picture quality even in dubbing operations within a single tape format.

Telecommunications Glossary/84

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: The combination of TCP

and IP. The particular system for transferring information over a computer network that

is at the heart of the Internet.: IP is the network layer protocol for the Internet. It is a

packet switching, datagram protocol defined in RFC 791.

TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access: Form of multiple access where a single

carrier is time shared by many users. Signals from earth stations reaching the satellite

consecutively are processed in time segments without overlapping.

Telco: Generic name for telephone companies.

Telecommunications: Communicating over a distance. Use of wire, radio, optical or

other electromagnetic channels to transmit or receive signals for voice, video and data


Telecommuter – telecommuting: Ability to work from home, local office, or from the

road because of equipment. Equipment allows the telecommuting employee to work

from anywhere. The equipment includes a telephone, fax, modem and as the NII is

deployed, video.

Telecomputer: Equipment used to receive digitized information in audio, video, and

data modes.

Teleconference: Electronic communications between two or more groups, or three or

more individuals, who are in separate locations via audio, audiographics, video or

computer. Audio teleconference – two-way communication between two or more groups,

or three or more individuals, in separate locations. Video teleconference – one (or more)

uplink and downlink sites. May be fully interactive voice and video, two-way voice and

one-way video; full-motion, compressed, or freeze-frame video.

Telemetry: The science of sensing and measuring information at some remote location

and transmitting the data to a convenient location to be read and recorded.

Telenet: A public packet-switching network operated by US Sprint. Also known as


Telnet: The Internet standard protocol for remote terminal connection service. Allows a

user at one site to interact with a remote time sharing system at another site as if the

user’s terminal was connected directly to the remote computer (see “rlogin”). On the

Macintosh, NCSA Telnet is the standard.

Telephone Conference Bridge: Device that links three or more telephone channels for

a teleconference; usually refers to a bridge that provides only dial-up teleconferencing

where an operator calls each participant. Contrast to meet-me bridge.

Telecommunications Glossary/85

Telephony: the use or operation of an apparatus for transmission of sounds between

widely removed points with or without connecting wires.

Teleport: A generic term referring to a facility capable of transmitting and receiving

satellite signals for other users.

Teletext: Broadcast service using several otherwise unused scanning lines (vertical

blanking intervals) between frames of TV pictures to transmit information from a central

data base to receiving television sets. Users of a teletext service grab pages from the

transmission cycle using a keypad similar to that used in videotex systems.

Television: The electronic transmission of pictures and sounds.

Telewriter: General term for an electronic device that produces free-hand information

that can be sent over a telecommunications channel, usually a telephone line.

Terminal: 1. Generally, connection point of equipment, power or signal. 2. Any

terminating piece of equipment such as a computer terminal.

Text: In terms of files, a file that contains only characters from the ASCII character set.

In terms of FTP, a mode that assumes that files will be transferred containing only

ASCII characters.

Terrestrial Carrier/Land Line: Telecommunications transmission system using landbased

facilities (microwave towers, telephone lines, fiber optic cable).

Thicknet – Thinnet: Thicknet cable can support longer distances than Thinnet (500

meters) and have up to 100 nodes connected to it. Thinnet cable looks similar to

television cable and is often used to connect networks within limited distances (185

meters) and limited nodes (35).

Thread: A group of messages in a Usenet discussion group that all share the same

subject and topic, so one can easily read the entire thread or delete it, depending on the

specific newsreader.

TI – Terrestrial Interference: TI is normally generated as a result of relatively strong

terrestrial microwave signals overpowering the weak satellite transmissions which are

the primary signals of interest at a satellite earth station.

Time Code: Code electronically placed on a videotape that appears on the screen or on

a counter to locate specific footage and edit tape. Logs are made of the footage on tape

before editing so it can be located and viewed quickly during the editing.

Time Sharing: Pertaining to the interleaved use of time on a computer system that

enables two or more users to execute computer programs concurrently.

Token Ring: A type of LAN. Examples are IEEE 802.5, ProNET-10/80 and FDDI. The

term “token ring” is often used to denote 802.5

Telecommunications Glossary/86

Touch Screen: A video-and/or computer monitor which responds to the user’s finger

touch in order to control the program.

Transceiver: Terminal that transmits and receives.

Transfer Rate: The amount of data that can be communicated from the CD-ROM drive

to the CPU. Standard CD-ROM data transfer rate is 155KB/sec, (often rounded to


Transmission Channel: The medium by which a signal is sent and received between

separate locations.

Transponder – Channel – Downlink Frequency: A satellite microwave repeater

(receiver and transmitter) receives the signal from an uplink, amplifies it, down converts

the frequency of a received band of signals, and re-transmits the signal back to earth.

Satellites have 12, 24, or more transponders each with the capacity for one color TV

signal and two audio channels. Typically transponder with 24 transponders have twelve

polarized for vertical and twelve for horizontal transmissions in order to optimize the

bandwidth of the satellite and the respective transponders.

Treatment: A narrative description of a media program. In videoteleconferencing,

usually describes routine of action and precedes a rundown and/or script.

Tuner: A device, circuit, or portion of a circuit that is used to select one signal from a

number of signals in a given frequency range.

TVRO – Television Receive Only: Earth stations which receive (but not transmit)

satellite transmissions. Normally comprised of a parabolic antenna, low noise converted

(LNC) or low noise amplifier (LNA) and a satellite receiver. The antenna gathers the

weak signals transmitted from the communications satellite located in the geostationary

orbit which are then amplified and downconverted to a more usable portion of the

spectrum by the low noise converted. From the LNC the signals may travel up to

several hundred feet to a satellite receiver; the output of which is typically video and

audio or modulated channel three or four. 23B+D The capability of ISDN primary rate

interface (PRI) to enable data terminals served by a DMS-100 ISDN node to have fully

digital circuit- and packet-switched ISDN internetworking with data terminals served by


Twisted Pair: A pair of wires used in transmission circuits and twisted about one

another to minimize coupling with other circuits. UTP – unshielded twisted pair.

Two-way Interactive Television: Two-way interactive television provides real-time,

two-way visual contact and audio contact between students in two or more classrooms

and their instructor/facilitator who may be at one of the sites or a separate origination

site. Two-way compressed video systems are not all delivered at the same speed.

Some are full-motion video and some are delivered at slower speed so that the picture

and audio are delayed in delivery and do not have the same appearance as full NTSC

video. Some systems use full fiber optic or T1 lines for delivery while other use a partial

T1 or ISDN for delivery of the signal. Signals are also delivered compressed to a part of

Telecommunications Glossary/87

a satellite transponder. The reason for using partial lines and partial transponders is to

use less bandwidth. Less bandwidth for the transmission reduces the cost to deliver the


Two-Wire Circuit: A typical telephone circuit on the public switched network; a circuit

formed by two conductors insulated from each other to provide a send and receive

channel in the same frequency.

Telecommunications Glossary/88


UHF-VHF: UHF stands for ultra high frequency television transmission channels above

channel 13 (Channels 14-3.. VHF stands for very high frequency; television

transmission channels 2 through 13.

Unions: The unions most closely associated with video production. Usually, if one

group of people on a production are union, all will be. They may belong to the following


Actors Equity represents actors in certain areas of the country.

AFM: American Federation of Musicians. This union represents professional

musicians in all areas of performance – recording and personal appearance.

AFTRA: American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. A union for artists

who perform on broadcast media, including tape.

BMI and ASCAP: Broadcast Music Incorporated and American Society

Composers and Publishers which serve the same function of licensing and

collecting creative royalties on works of music played in live public performance

and recordings.

IATSE: International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees.: Normally

these people are found on live theater stages working with sets, props, lighting

and other theatrical gear. However, they may also be the union representing the

same group of workers as IBEW.

IBEW: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. IBEW has a special

chapter for engineers, camera operators, audio engineers, video engineers,

lighting designers and technicians, video editors and any other technicians or

electricians who work in television production. IBEW members are employed by

television stations, some cable companies, some corporations and some

production companies.

SAG: Screen Actors Guild which represents talent. Originally, this union

represented actors working in the motion picture industry, but in recent years

they have represented other talent areas.

UNIX: An operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that supports multiuser and

multitasking operations.

UNMA – Unified Network Management Architecture: (AT&T).

Uplink: An earth station that transmits a radio frequency signal to a communications

satellite. The transmitting facility, or uplink, consists of a large dish-shaped antenna and

high-power amplifiers. The uplink is like the transmitter of a radio or television station,

except that it concentrates it signals in one direction by means of a parabolic dish

antenna that delivers a strong pinpoint signal to a specific satellite in space.

Telecommunications Glossary/89

Upload: Copy a file from your computer to a host system. Upload is the term used for

sending information over a network. Download refers to receiving information off a

network. To save on connect time charges users often download information on to a

data disk, and then work with it off-line.

URL – Uniform Resource Locator: A standard for writing a text reference to an

arbitrary piece of data in the WWW. A URL looks like “protocol://host/localinfo” where

protocol specifies a protocol to use to fetch the object (like HTTP or FTP), host specifies

the Internet name of the host on which to find it, and local info is a string (often a file

name) passed to the protocol handler on the remote host.

Usenet: An anarchic network of sorts, composed of thousands of discussion groups on

every imaginable topic.

Usenet Newsgroup: Discussion group on one topic.

User name: On most host systems, the first time you connect you are asked to supply a

one-word user name. This can be any combination of letters and numbers.

UUCP – Unix-to-Unix Copy Program: A method for transferring Usenet postings and

e-mail that requires far fewer Net resources than TCP/IP, but which can result in

considerably slower transfer times.

Telecommunications Glossary/90


Value Added Network – VAN: A data network operated in the U.S. by a firm which

obtains basic transmission facilities from the common carriers, and adds value such as

error detection and sharing and resells the service to users. Telenet and TymNet are

examples of VANs.

Vector Quantization: Compression coding technique that uses block processing to

exploit redundancies within a frame. For example, if the blue sky background within a

frame is one constant color, one pixel of that color is all that needs to be stored. Quick

duplication of the pixel by vectors (usually 8 x 8) occurs when decompressed and

displayed on a monitor.

Veronica: An information agent that searches a database of Gopher servers to find

items that are of interest to the user.

VF: Voice frequency.

Vi: An extremely powerful Unix editor with the personality of a junkyard dog. Muchbeloved

by many Unix aficionados.

Videodisc: Information stored on an optical disc is retrieved via laser technology

(versus a stylus or needle). The most commonly known optical disc is the audio

compact disc. 12″ or 8″ in diameter optical disc; requires laserdisc player; may contain

up to 54,000 still frames or 30 minutes of full motion video on each side (or some

variation of each); stores information in analog format. Their use and popularity has

been largely eclipsed by VCRs using magnetic videotape cassettes. Levels of

Interactive Videodisc Systems:

Level I: A videodisc player with the following capabilities: still/free frame, picture

stop, chapter stop, frame address and two audio channels. Level I videodiscs

have limited memory and limited processing power.

Level II: A videodisc player with the capabilities of Level I, plus programmable

memory and improved access time.

Level III: Level I or II players combined with an external computer and/or other

peripheral processing device. Level III IVD systems may have two monitors – one

for the video and one for the computer – or may display the video and computer

screens on a single monitor.

Level IV: Combines computer and videodisc technologies into one piece of

equipment. Too expensive for most commercial uses, it is used almost

exclusively by the military.

Video: A term pertaining to the bandwidth and spectrum of the signal which results from

television scanning and which is used to reproduce a picture.

Video Camera: A camera which converts images to electrical signals for recording on

magnetic tape or live transmission. Videodisc A record-like device storing a large

Telecommunications Glossary/91

amount of audio and visual information that can be linked to a computer; one side can

store the pictures and sounds for 54,000 separate television screens.

Video Display: Presentation of the TV signal can be as simple as using a 19″ TV

receiver or as elaborate as large screen projection costing $200,000. The ideal lies

somewhere in between. Analyze the room, physical layout, anticipated audience size,

and AV support staff. In general, the larger the screen, the better. Projected images

produce greater psychological impact, and help to dispel a viewer’s feeling that he or

she is watching TV. A general rule of thumb that has been suggested concerning

minimum screen size is to figure no more than one viewer per diagonal inch. A 19″ set

would accommodate 19 viewers. This may not always be the case and it does not

provide the larger-than-life experience that may be more effective in communicating the


Videotape: A plastic, iron oxide-coated tape of various widths from 1/4″ to 2″ for

recording and playback of video and audio signals and additional technical code


Video Teleconference: A meeting involving at least one uplink and a number of

downlinks at different locations. Electronic voice and video communication between two

or more locations. It can be fully interactive voice and video or two-way voice and oneway

video. It includes full-motion, compressed, and freeze-frame video.

Videotex: The generic term used to refer to a two-way interactive system(s) for the

delivery of computer-generated data into the home, usually using the television set as

the display device. Some of the more often used specific terms are “viewdata” for

telephone-based systems (narrowband interactive systems); “wideband broadcast” or

“cabletext” for systems utilizing a full video channel for information transmission; and

“wideband two-way teletext” for systems which could be implemented over two-way

cable television systems. In addition, hybrids and other transmission technologies, such

as satellite, could be used for delivery of videotex services on a national scale.

Viewdata: Generic term used primarily in the U.S. and Great Britain to describe twoway

information retrieval systems based on mainframe computers accessed by dumb or

intelligent terminals whose chief characteristic is ease of use. Originally designed to use

the telephone network, viewdata in the U.S. is being implemented over other distribution

media such as coaxial. Viewdata’s salient characteristic is the formatting, storing, and

accessing of screens (sometimes called frames or pages) of alphanumeric displays for

retrieval by users according to a menu or through use of keyboard search. A two-way

form of videotex.

Virtual Private Network: Use of the public switched telephone system to provide a

capability similar to that of a private network.

Virtual Reality – VR: Loosely defined as putting users into a computer-generated

environment, rather than merely reacting to images on a display screen. Full immersion

VR can include a helmet that senses head movement and changes the view seen

through small TV screens mounted in front of each eye along with gloves that allow

users to touch objects in the virtual world.

Telecommunications Glossary/92

Virtual Space: Refers to a type of videoconference in which each participant is

assigned a separate camera and is seen on a separate monitor, large screen or

assigned spatial area.

VLSI: Very large scale integration.

Voice Actuated: Equipment activated in response to a voice. A voice-switched

microphone is activated by a voice. In voice-switched video cameras are activated by

voice to send a picture of the speaker.

Voice Mail: Products record, store and forward voice messages from one electronic

mailbox to another by using single commands from any touch tone phone.

Voice-Over: Words spoken by an off-camera narrator – over the video.

Voice-Switched Microphone: Microphone that is activated by a sound of sufficient

amplitude; generally allows only one person to speak at a time.

Voice-Switched Video: Type of video conference in which the cameras are activated

by voice signals to send a picture of a particular person in the group. Not all participants

can be seen at any one time in contrast to continuous presence video.

Volatile Memory: A storage medium in which information is destroyed when power is

removed from the system.

VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal: Small earth stations with a satellite dish

usually 4 to 6 feet (1.2 to 1.8 meters) in diameter used to receive high speed data

transmission; can also transmit slow- speed data. A VSAT uplink for compressed video

a C-Band frequencies is approximately 4.5 meters in diameter for most satellite


VT100: Another terminal-emulation system. Originally, a dedicated terminal built by

DEC to interface to mainframes. Supported by many communications program, it is the

most common one in use on the Internet. VT102 is a newer version.

VTR – VCR: Video tape recorder or video cassette recorder. Equipment capable of

recording video. All video equipment is not equipped to record as it requires recording

heads to accomplish.

Telecommunications Glossary/93


WAIS – Wide Area Information Service: A distributed text search system based on a

standard (Z39.50) that describes a way for one computer to ask another to do searches

for it. It looks at the content of files (not just the titles).

WAN: Wide Area Network (see LAN)

WATS Line: Wide Area Telecommunications Service A type of telephone service in

which subscribers pay a base rate rather than a charge per call. An in-WATS line allows

anyone in a designated area to phone an 800 number and pay nothing for the call. An

out-WATS line allows users to place outgoing long-distance calls.

Wavelength Multiplexing: Transmitting individual signals simultaneously by using a

different wavelength for each signal. Synonymous with frequency division multiplexing.

Whois: An Internet program which allows users to query a database of people and other

Internet entities, such as domains, networks and hosts, kept at the NIC. The information

for people shows a person’s company name, address, phone number and e-mail


Wildcards: Special characters such as * and ? that can stand in for other characters

during text searches in some programs. The * wildcard generally means “match any

other characters in this spot,” and the ? generally means “match any other character in

this spot.”

Wipe: Optical effect in which the picture appears to have been wiped from the screen;

i.e. from left to right, top to bottom.

Wireless Cable: Uses microwave frequencies to transmit programming to a small

antenna (about the size of an open newspaper) at subscriber homes.

World Wide Web – WWW: The web of systems and the data in them that is the

Internet. Presents information in a user friendly hypertext format. WWW displays pages

of information, with links to other pages. Mosaic is the program that really makes Web

materials come alive. Different systems display the links differently, by highlighting the

link items or by putting a code (such as a number in brackets) after the item. Others put

the link in boldface or in color.

WorldWindow: Offered by the Washington University Libraries in St. Louis, MO, a

gateway to dozens of login services. Telnet to library.wustl.edu (no login needed).

WORM – Write Once Read Many: A type of permanent optical storage which allows the

user to record information on a blank optical storage disc. Information may be added

until the disc is full, but not erased or changed.

Word Processor: A computer-based typing and text-editing system.

Workstation: Computers that are generally targeted at technical users, interface over a

network easily, often run UNIX, come standard with more compute power than PCs and

are capable of fast graphics. Distinctions between high-end personal computers and

Telecommunications Glossary/94

workstations are blurring. For high-end animation work such as 3-D logs, morphing or

animated characters, workstations provide the compute power and graphics

performance the animator needs. Workstations are used for computer-generated

imagery (often called CGI) because they take less time than PCs to render images.

Wrap: The end of a program or production sequence, as in, “That’s a wrap.”

Wraparound: Local activities prior to, in the midst of, or following a teleconference to

focus the content toward outcomes and ideas which can directly assist the participants.

Telecommunications Glossary/95


X.25: Set of packet-switching standards published by the CCITT. An international

standard for control of data communications between two or more computers or

terminals using packet-switching technology.

XMODEM: A common file transfer protocol.


Yanoff: Scott Yanoff publishes a regularly updated on-line resource guide. To find out

how to get a copy finger yanoff@csd4.csd.uwm.edu

Yellow Book: The physical specification for CD-ROMs. See CD-ROM.

YMODEM: Another common file transfer protocol.


.zip: The filename extension used by files compressed into the ZIP format common on


ZMODEM: The fastest and most popular file transfer protocol.


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